FIGURE 13.1 Major patterns in the movement of plant lineages discussed here. (Upper) Hypothesized movements in both directions of now disjunct tropical lineages across the North Atlantic during the early Tertiary. (Lower) (1) Hypothesized originations of adaptation to cold, seasonal climates, perhaps predominantly in Asia. (2) Iterated movement more recently of temperate lineages around the Northern Hemisphere, especially through Beringia, and perhaps predominantly out of Asia. (3) More recent New World movements of lineages adapted to high elevations, especially from North America into the Andes of South America over the last 5 million years. Base maps for the Eocene (≈50 million years ago) (Upper) and the Miocene (≈14 million years ago) (Lower) are based on C. R. Scotese’s PALEOMAP Project (www.scotese.com). Darker gray areas show the hypothesized distribution of tropical climates during those time periods [see Fine and Ree (2006)].