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reliable recommendations. In the meantime, many avenues for attaining this goal—communications through media, environmental NGOs, contributions of public science institutions, and the development of citizen science programs—have been established. Investments in these actions must be strengthened and their strategies revisited and refined. Most importantly, the critical roles of species in providing ecosystem services, natural beauty and pleasure, and sustaining human lives bear a message that requires constant attention, recrafting, and improved deliverance to impact diverse public audiences.


I thank symposium organizers J. C. Avise and F. J. Ayala for the invitation to contribute. E. J. Sterling, T. E. Lovejoy, G. Amato, M. A. O’Leary, L. J. Guggenheim, E. V. Futter, J. Cracraft, E. O. Wilson, and P. H. Raven shared insights and comments that influenced the development of this chapter. I thank J. C. Avise, J. B. C. Jackson, and an anonymous reviewer for constructive criticisms and comments.

NOTE: A 2008 Gallup Poll shows that more Americans than ever recognize that the effects of global warming may have already begun but are not as concerned about this as they are other problems, including the pollution of drinking water (Newport, 2008).

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