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FIGURE 3.1 Dorsal view of typically sized reef stomatopods (large Gonodactylaceus falcatus, small Gonodactylellus incipiens; scale bar for both is 10.0 mm), lateral view of raptorial claw, and photograph of individual delivering a threatening display at the entrance of its burrow (Gonodactylaceus ternatensis, courtesy of Roy Caldwell). Drawing of the raptorial claw shows the merus (m), meral spot (ms, which varies in color from white through yellow, orange, red, pink, purple, and blue among species), propodus (p), and dactyl (d); p and d normally are folded against m but are opened (arrow) either together as a hammer or with d projected as a spear. Coloration of the flared antennal scales and setae also varies from yellow to red, blue, and green among species.

FIGURE 3.1 Dorsal view of typically sized reef stomatopods (large Gonodactylaceus falcatus, small Gonodactylellus incipiens; scale bar for both is 10.0 mm), lateral view of raptorial claw, and photograph of individual delivering a threatening display at the entrance of its burrow (Gonodactylaceus ternatensis, courtesy of Roy Caldwell). Drawing of the raptorial claw shows the merus (m), meral spot (ms, which varies in color from white through yellow, orange, red, pink, purple, and blue among species), propodus (p), and dactyl (d); p and d normally are folded against m but are opened (arrow) either together as a hammer or with d projected as a spear. Coloration of the flared antennal scales and setae also varies from yellow to red, blue, and green among species.

Faunal Carryover Hypothesis

Species from a Mesozoic/early Cenozoic center of diversity in Europe migrated east to the IAA and probably south along the continental margin of the Indian Ocean (IOC) as the Tethys Seaway was closed by the collision of Africa with Eurasia between the Paleocene and Miocene (Briggs, 2000, 2003, 2007). High stomatopod diversity in the IAA and in the western/southwestern IO (Fig. 3.2) is consistent with this hypothesis.

Center of Accumulation Hypothesis

Species originate in small peripheral populations, larvae from peripheral regions are carried by currents into central areas favorable for reef growth (arrows in Fig. 3.2), and species accumulate in these current-fed



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