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Environmental Remediation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Temporary Storage Facilities in Gremikha Village: Challenges and Proposed Solutions

Yu. Ye. Gorlinsky, A. Yu. Kazennov, O. A. Nikolsky, V. A. Pavlov, B. S. Stepennov, and A. F. Usaty, Russian Research Center—Kurchatov Institute

CURRENT STATUS OF OPERATIONS IN GREMIKHA VILLAGE

The former Russian Navy technical base in Gremikha village, now called the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste temporary storage facility, is situated on the northern coast of the Kola Peninsula. It was built in the mid-1960s to provide technical services for nuclear submarines, with the primary objectives of its work being as follows:

  • Refueling pressurized water reactors, as well as storing and removing irradiated fuel assemblies

  • Refueling liquid-metal coolant reactors, as well as storing spent removable cores from these reactors

  • Receiving, storing, and removing liquid and solid radioactive wastes for disposal or processing

The site covers 150,000 m2 and has approximately 600 m of shoreline. The terrain at the site is rugged, with the elevation ranging from 0 to 25 m above sea level. In the immediate area, there are no roads, rail lines, or air connections with large cities or even with small settlements. Life support for the site and the closed administrative town of Ostrovnoi is provided by the ship Klavdia Yelanskaya and



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20 Environmental Remediation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Temporary Storage Facilities in Gremikha Village: Challenges and Proposed Solutions Yu. Ye. Gorlinsky, A. Yu. Kazenno, O. A. Nikolsky, V. A. Palo, B. S. Stepenno, and A. F. Usaty, Russian Research Center—Kurchato Institute CURRENT STATUS OF OPERATIONS IN GREMIKHA VILLAGE The former Russian Navy technical base in Gremikha village, now called the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste temporary storage facility, is situated on the northern coast of the Kola Peninsula. It was built in the mid-1960s to provide technical services for nuclear submarines, with the primary objectives of its work being as follows: • Refueling pressurized water reactors, as well as storing and removing irradiated fuel assemblies • Refueling liquid-metal coolant reactors, as well as storing spent remov- able cores from these reactors • Receiving, storing, and removing liquid and solid radioactive wastes for disposal or processing The site covers 150,000 m2 and has approximately 600 m of shoreline. The terrain at the site is rugged, with the elevation ranging from 0 to 25 m above sea level. In the immediate area, there are no roads, rail lines, or air connections with large cities or even with small settlements. Life support for the site and the closed administrative town of Ostrovnoi is provided by the ship Kladia Yelanskaya and 1

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1 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS by helicopters. The distance to Gremikha from either Murmansk or Arkhangelsk is approximately 400 km by sea. The lack of a developed transportation network could have negative consequences for future cargo delivery operations. In 1998 the Russian government terminated operations at the site, and in 2001 it was transferred to Minatom (the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy, now the Federal Atomic Energy Agency, or Rosatom) for environmental remediation. The objectives are to remove the spent nuclear fuel and the radioactive waste, decommission the facility, and clean up the adjacent territory within a sanitary protective zone until residual contamination reaches acceptable levels. This work is to be carried out with consideration for possible options for further use of the site, provided that safe conditions can be ensured for workers, the public, and the environment. Circumstances hampering environmental remediation at the site include the following: • There are no national standards or requirements for environmental re- mediation of nuclear- and radiation-hazard facilities, nor are there criteria for demonstrating that cleanup goals have been reached. • There are no approved end-state solutions for the site or decisions on the time allocated to reach that end state, taking into account proposals for further use of its various facilities. • Hard and urgent work must be carried out in order to provide adequate conditions for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste storage, taking into ac- count both the existing damage to the protective barriers and infrastructure and the support of the population. • Plans for environmental remediation depend on prospects for further development of the town of Ostrovnoi, which is the main center supporting the people involved in this work. • The positions taken by parties with an interest in Ostrovnoi’s future are diverse with differing objectives. Thus, proposed implementation plans for environmental remediation vary considerably. • Active work is limited to specific seasons because of the climate condi- tions and availability of transportation connections. • Previous environmental remediation experience with such facilities is lacking. • Solutions must be recommended that take into account realistic work dynamics and unstable operating conditions that entail high risks during imple- mentation of planned approaches. Urgent environmental remediation efforts have already been carried out, including work related to radiation safety of workers during routine operations at the facility, preparation and implementation of comprehensive engineering radiation studies, and partial restoration of the site infrastructure.

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1 ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION Within the Strategic Master Plan for the total decommissioning and remedia- tion of former naval sites in northwestern Russia, proposals have been prepared for environmental remediation of the site. Efforts are being stepped up with ad- ditional funding provided by foreign donors as well as by Rosatom. The foreign donors are France (Atomic Energy Commission, CEA); the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD); and the European Commission (EC), under the Technical Aid to the Commonwealth of Independent States Program (TACIS). Each of the parties undertakes certain obligations for financing urgent tasks, which include the following: • The site study component anticipates a comprehensive engineering and radioactive examination of the buildings and structures, site conditions, and off- shore waters. • Preproject documents are to be developed, justifying the selection of optimum engineering solutions for management of spent fuel from Alpha-class nuclear submarines, management of solid and liquid radioactive waste, and the marine infrastructure. • The container component must provide containers for safe transportation of spent fuel and solid radioactive waste being stored at the site. • Top priority projects are to focus on urgent tasks related to building repair, equipment modernization, elimination and localization of radiation-hazard hot spots, and so forth. Previously, Minatom and Rosatom had accomplished the following work: • A preliminary site study was carried out in 2003-2004, including the grounds, building interiors, structures, and offshore waters. Based on an exami- nation of the results, top priority remediation tasks have been identified in the Strategic Master Plan. • The site infrastructure was reconstructed to handle the unloading of re- actors from Alpha-class submarines. This infrastructure preparation, a top priority activity, has facilitated unloading since 2000. The following components of the unloading complex were repaired and modernized: • Dry Dock DD-10 • Reactor refueling building (1A) • Spent removable core storage facility (1B) • Universal reloading equipment • Hoisting gears • System for physical control of reactors and spent removable cores

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10 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS In order to heat Alpha-class submarine reactors, a boiler house was designed and commissioned using modern equipment. In 2005 and 2006, two Alpha-class submarines were placed in Dry Dock DD-10. Spent removable cores were unloaded from these submarines in accor- dance with technological regulations. They were placed in buildings 1B and 1A, respectively, for interim storage. According to contracts between the Kurchatov Institute and CEA, Russian organizations carried out the following tasks in 2005-2007, with the resulting information serving as the basis for preproject and project documentation: • Generalization of results from the preliminary site study, analysis of relevant information regarding availability and conditions of accumulated spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, and assessments of the condition of the engi- neering infrastructure • Development of the Gremikha information system and generation of a database that will include the results of previous studies • Purchase and installation of equipment, devices, and materials to cre- ate conditions for safe implementation of current radiation-hazard operations, including two modular decontamination facilities and additional radiological equipment • Completion of a site study aimed at obtaining comprehensive informa- tion on both the radiation situation in the buildings, structures, and offshore waters and the engineering conditions of buildings, structures, and the technical infrastructure CEA has begun to finance activities on 14 projects proposed by Rosatom. Contracts have been signed for five projects, and technical and financial proposals have been prepared for the remainder. In July 2005, TACIS signed a contract with the Kurchatov Institute entitled “Preliminary Radiological and Engineering Study and Actions for Radiologi- cal Protection for Solid Radioactive Waste at Gremikha.” Under this contract, additional protective equipment, instruments, and materials were provided to ensure safe performance of current onsite operations. Work completed includes the following: • Preparation and commissioning of two additional modular decontamina- tion facilities, manufactured with French financing • Examination of onsite solid radioactive waste facilities to obtain infor- mation on the radiation and technical conditions of spent fuel and solid waste in outdoor storage • Containment of intense radiation sources, resulting in improvement of the onsite radiation situation by more than 6 times (and in some places, up to 200 times)

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11 ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION The site study results are being used to develop projects relating to the trans- fer of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste into interim repositories (EBRD Project 2) for the purpose of improving their storage conditions. In accordance with contracts between EBRD and Russian organizations, the following projects are being implemented: • Project 1: Creation of safe conditions for spent removable cores from Alpha-class submarines • Project 2: Development of a conceptual project for placement of spent nuclear fuel and solid radioactive waste in interim repositories • Project 3: Development of a conceptual project for improvement of spent nuclear fuel storage conditions for the nuclear submarine in Building 1 • Project 4: Improvement of the current system of physical protection at the site • Project 9: System of radiological monitoring and emergency preparedness ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION STRATEGY AND END STATE The Gremikha site is a radiation legacy of the former USSR. The strategy of environmental remediation at the site is based on several related objectives: • Identification of strategies for reaching the facility’s end state and speci- fication of positive and negative features • Determination of the main stages and principles of work • Identification of stakeholders and the basis of their positions • Specification of principal factors in justifying selection of the most ac- ceptable facility end-state options • Selection of the most acceptable end-state strategies for the site based on comprehensive assessments of strategy options • Time and cost evaluations for strategy implementation The environmental remediation program at the site must consist of interim stages. The remedial strategy must ensure that the situation at the facility will be controllable, stable, protected, and safe at each stage. Security and safety levels for the site as a nuclear- and radiation-hazard facility must increase as each suc- ceeding stage is reached. A target goal for environmental remediation of the separate storage site facil- ity is as follows (Bylkin et al., 2007): • Conversion of the facility to comply with regulatory requirements • Removal of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the site and subsequent decommissioning of the facility

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12 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS • Remediation of the adjacent area within the sanitary-protective zone to the extent that residual contamination levels acceptable to the stakeholders are achieved (Gorlinsky et al., 2008) The environmental remediation work may be divided into four stages: • Stage 1 (2005-2010): Urgent facility conversion efforts to achieve con- ditions meeting regulatory requirements • Stage 2 (2008-2015): Removal of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the site • Stage 3 (2010-2020): Decommissioning of the facility and removal of secondary radioactive waste generated • Stage 4 (2018-completion): Decontamination of buildings and structures and remediation of adjacent land and water areas within the sanitary-protective zone Site end-state options and strategies for achieving them are presented in Table 20-1. They differ in regulatory control levels after the end state is reached. The strictest regulatory requirements apply to spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste storage facilities and to radioactive waste disposal facilities. “Green field” status means that the site would be exempt from regulatory control. Given this information, the stages with time lines of no more than 10 to 15 years are considered the most justifiable and possible. Further predictions must include hypothetical options based on general wishes as well as declared or po- tential intentions of stakeholders. The factor “compliance with actual legislation, government policy, and in- ternational obligations” serves as a restriction in implementation of some strate- gies. Only if this factor were minimized would such strategies be acceptable, as it is difficult to balance the end state after remediation with modern regulatory requirements. For “spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste storage facility and/or disposal facility for secondary radioactive waste,” which is the end state for the strategy “conversion and facility disposal in situ,” regulatory requirements restrict spent fuel and radioactive waste storage facility possibilities. Compliance with these requirements plays a key role in site selection for the facilities for longer term storage and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste. To lower this bar when implementing the strategy, the supervisory authority must make special decisions. Turning to the end state “brown field: industrial (non-radiation-hazard) facil- ity site,” this is the end state for the strategy “facility liquidation and site reme- diation.” Implementation of this strategy is hampered by the modern regulatory base having no radiation safety requirements for workers at industrial enterprises (nonradiation-hazard facilities) situated within contaminated areas. In this case,

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1 ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION TABLE 20-1 Strategies for Environmental Remediation at the Gremikha Site End State Requirements for Safety Level Strategy No action: Current Compliance with requirements conditions for nonradiation-hazard Maintenance of facility in current condition facilities and for management without change and operation of spent fuel and radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities Conversion and temporary operation of Spent facility: fuel and radioactive Facility conversion and use according to current waste storage function for spent fuel and radioactive waste facility and/or management and for interim (technological) disposal storage facility for Conversion and facility disposal in situ: secondary Facility conversion, spent fuel and radioactive radioactive waste removal, and disposal of remaining waste materials with fixed contamination (secondary radioactive waste) in situ Change of facility function: Brown field: Full compliance with site for a requirements for radiation- Spent fuel and radioactive waste removal and radiation- hazard facilities subsequent urgent partial dismantlement of hazard the building, as well as decontamination of the facility building and the site in order to build a new radiation-hazard facility Change of facility function: Same as above, but with delayed partial dismantlement Facility liquidation and site remediation: Brown field: Release from regulatory industrial control due to restrictions on Spent fuel and radioactive waste removal (nonradiation- site use and subsequent urgent full dismantlement of hazard) structures and radioactive waste removal, as well facility site as remediation of the adjacent area in order to build a new nonradiation-hazard facility Facility liquidation and site remediation: Same as above, but with delayed full dismantlement Facility liquidation and site renovation: Green field Full release from regulatory control Spent fuel and radioactive waste removal and subsequent urgent full dismantlement of structures and radioactive waste removal, as well as remediation of adjacent area Facility liquidation and site renovation: Same as above, but with delayed full dismantlement

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1 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS regulation is based on individual decisions and covers particular conditions, for example, operation of industrial plants outside areas contaminated with radiation following the Chernobyl accident. The green field end state is worthy of notice along with its related strategy “facility liquidation and site renovation.” In considering a separate facility, this strategy looks tolerable enough. Here, interference with facilities located at the same industrial site was not taken into account, even though the release from regulatory control of a single site at a radiation-hazard facility is unlikely to be justifiable. Analysis of environmental remediation options has demonstrated that for the next 10 to 15 years, the most acceptable strategy is to “change the facility func- tion.” For the Gremikha site as a whole, this strategy includes urgent removal of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste and subsequent modification of the site facilities into new radiation-hazard facilities that would provide technical support for remediation work, which could take not more than 10 to 15 years. Two other strategies compete with this one: • “Conversion of Gremikha site facilities and disposal in situ” • “Liquidation of facilities and site remediation,” which would allow for building on the site an industrial facility that does not involve radiation hazards The regulatory and legislative base hampers implementation of these strate- gies. Nevertheless, if special actions and documents were to expand this legisla- tive base to permit implementation of these strategies, they could be considered acceptable for the site. TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION Analysis of the Current Radiation Situation Technological facilities situated within the sanitary protective zone and the radiation-monitoring area are practically clean. However, about 60 percent of the controlled-access area has soil contaminated with cesium-137. The area under the rock near building 1B, the perimeter of building 1A from the side of the rock, and the area close to the liquid radioactive waste storage facility are contaminated zones. The soil there is considered radioactive waste. The total volume of contaminated soil classified as solid radioactive waste (low-level and some medium-level) is preliminarily estimated as about 500 m3. In general, the radiation situation at the site permits specialists with appropriate permission to work at all site facilities if they observe radiation safety norms according to Ra- diation Safety Standards-99. Seawater contamination discovered during a preliminary study of the coastal strip and in water samples taken offshore near the site is due both to radioactivity

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1 ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION entering with rainwater from the site and to many years of reception and storage of radioactive waste at the site. Cesium-137 content in bottom sediments has been measured at approximately 103 Bq/kg and in seaweed at about 60 Bq/kg, while cobalt-60 concentration has been up to approximately 0.7 × 103 Bq/kg. Contamination of bottom sediments is localized. On the whole, analysis of the waters near the site based on direct measure- ments shows that cesium-137 and cobalt-60 content in the seawater and bottom sediments is at the level of background values adopted for this region. The same results confirm an absence of radiation contamination of offshore waters of the Barents Sea with man-made radionuclides cesium-137 and cobalt-60 as a result of site activities. In the surveillance area (land extending to a 10-km radius from the site), radiation monitoring of the environment is sufficient to assess whether the main control parameters exceed radiation safety standards or control levels, with the exception of monitoring of radionuclide activity concentrations in the near- earth atmosphere. In order to receive such information, special radiation and hygienic monitoring is to be performed along with sensitive sample measurement methods. The results of radiation monitoring near the site serve as evidence that it is impossible to find impacts of site activities on the environment and the public within the surveillance area. Preliminary Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Site Remediation Scenarios The following types of possible radiation impacts on the environment under routine use of buildings and structures intended for management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste being accumulated within the site should be noted: • Radioactive gas and aerosol discharges (fission products, radiolysis products, and so forth) • Releases of storm-water runoff into the open hydrographic network with permissible contamination levels Concentrations of cesium-137 and strontium-90 radionuclides in the near- earth air layer within the sanitary protective zone and the surveillance area showed instability, ranging from 37 to 3 Bq/m3. To obtain more unbiased data, stationary facilities for monitoring radionuclide activity concentration in the atmosphere must be established. The existing site intended for solid radioactive waste operations will be a key source of uncontrolled gas and aerosol releases. Releases from buildings both under restoration and being newly constructed will be monitored. Source parameters and characteristics of releases will be specified.

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1 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS Assessments of the situation within the sanitary-protective zone and the sur- veillance area and planned technological actions directed to wastewater cleaning and gas purification show that implementation of remediation work at the site will not necessarily change the radiation situation considerably. During large-scale remediation, the probability of an accident occurring will increase. However, the level of potential accident-related public exposure will not require any fun- damental actions to be taken to protect the public. To ensure valid monitoring of the radiation situation, some stationary facilities should be established to track activity concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air. AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE BEING GENERATED Solid Radioactive Waste The main solid waste stream is located within the temporary solid waste stor- age facilities, located in Building 19 and on the site between Building 1B and the dock. The waste weight is 450 metric tons and waste volume is 800 m 3. In addition, remediation efforts are expected to produce approximately 2,500 metric tons (about 1,500 m3) from floating vessel dismantlement; empty spent fuel containers and covers; waste generated during liquid waste cementation; and waste due to disposal of contaminated equipment and rehabilitation of contami- nated soil, concrete structures, and so forth. A considerable amount of additional solid waste (approximately 500 m3 or 1,100 metric tons) is expected to be created through rehabilitation of soils and concrete structures. In most of this waste, radionuclide concentrations will meet standards for low-level waste. It would be expedient to apply technology to reduce this volume in order to remove it from the site to a longer term stor- age facility or to transport it to local industrial waste landfills. There are some approved technologies developed for this purpose, which must be adapted to conditions at the site. Liquid Radioactive Waste Approximately 300 m3 of liquid waste is present in liquid waste storage facilities, closed areas of Building 1, and spent nuclear fuel containers at the onsite temporary solid-waste storage facility. An additional volume of about 300 m3 is expected to be created as a result of decontamination of facilities and floating vessels. SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES The Gremikha site is situated in the closed administrative city of Ostrovnoi, which receives special funds allocated for such areas. Most of the approximately

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1 ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION 350 million rubles in grants received annually are for public utilities, transport services, and communications with Murmansk. However, the government has already prepared a draft directive on revoking the special status and grants. About 3,000 citizens live in Ostrovnoi. Periodically they receive support for resettlement to the “mainland.” Thus, population is decreasing, as is the number of people employed at organizations performing remediation at the site. Because of the remoteness and lack of surface transport, costs of public utilities are about 10 times higher than the average for Russia as a whole. MAIN REMEDIATION OPERATIONS A preliminary analysis of operations showed that more than 50 projects are to be implemented in the course of remediation at the site. These activities include the following: • Analysis of the site and its facilities based on available documentation • Institution of safety measures for the site study • Study of the site and determination of the characteristics of its facilities • Prevention of significant migration of radionuclides into offshore waters and isolation of powerful sources of gamma radiation to reduce the occupational dose level • Development of management proposals • Development of projects for the management of spent fuel, spent remov- able cores, solid and liquid radioactive waste, and contaminated soil (including development of special infrastructure units: storage facilities, containers, han- dling equipment, and robotics) • Preparation of the infrastructure for reconstruction of roads, building of switching and buffer areas, building of storage facilities, purchase of equip- ment and containers, preparation of agreements on use of containerships, and so forth • Preparation of spent fuel, spent removable cores, and radioactive waste for removal (examination, sorting, placement in containers and other packaging, loading of containers, and preparation for removal) • Removal of spent fuel, spent removable cores, solid and liquid radioac- tive waste, and contaminated soil from the site • Disassembly of contaminated and special equipment and structures and their dismantlement or removal • Decontamination of buildings intended for conversion • Remediation of the site and offshore waters A preliminary analysis of the technology associated with overall spent nu- clear fuel repackaging and its removal in transport containers has been carried out. Such technology (considering the tonnage of possible containerships and

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1 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS TABLE 20-2 Work Categories for Environmental Remediation at the Gremikha Site Category of Work Principal Elements According to Operations Note Preliminary work Global site study; creation of required radiation safety conditions for workers; provision of personal protective equipment, decontamination facilities, measurement instruments, and primary robotics and manipulators Pressurized water Examination of irradiated fuel rods (classification as reactor spent fuel conditioned, C, or damaged, D), pumping of water from management containers, removal of C-rods by the ship Lotta and D- rods by containership from the site Spent removable Order placement, production, and delivery of special core management containers for spent removable cores, their removal from the site and transport to the Scientific Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (NIIAR), building of infrastructure at NIIAR for spent core management Solid radioactive Formation and provision of technological conditions for waste management solid waste repackaging (sites, repositories, handling equipment, containers) Liquid radioactive Processing of liquid waste into solid form using the Potok waste management unit (cementation) Floating vessel Dismantlement of Floating Vessel 167 into solid management radioactive waste and Floating Vessel 175 into metal scrap Environmental Removal of contaminated soil from five locations, Approval of remediation of site separation of soil to minimize the amount of solid remediation radioactive waste to be removed from the site, remediation norms by of buildings, elimination of temporary solid and liquid Federal Medical- waste storage facilities Biological Agency Environmental Implementation of site study recommendations after remediation of removal of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the site offshore waters and remediation, if necessary, of bottom sediments climate-related restrictions) will make it possible to remove all of the spent fuel in the course of 4 years. In order to make comparative evaluations of the labor intensiveness of the various operations, they have been classified into eight groups, as shown in Table 20-2. COSTS OF REMEDIATION SCENARIOS An expert assessment of the expected costs of completing all remediation projects at the Gremikha site (about 50) is approximately 200 million euros. Twelve are considered as priority projects; they are already being implemented

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1 ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION and will be finished by 2010. Total cost data relating to the projects are given in Table 20-3. TABLE 20-3 Remediation Costs Cost Project Status Number Million Euros Million Rubles Years ~33 ~1,150 Priority 12 2005-2010 ~155 ~5,250 Planned 43 2006-2025 ~187 ~6,400 Total 55 2005-2025 CONCLUSIONS 1. Donor countries are providing active financial and technical support for this remediation activity. CEA (France), EBRD, and EC (TACIS) are the main contributors. 2. The following should be recognized as the most acceptable general strategy for environmental remediation at the site: • Successive conversion of separate facilities (putting them into compli- ance with regulatory requirements) and temporary continuation of current facility functions and usage • Urgent removal of spent nuclear fuel and primary radioactive waste • Decommissioning of facilities and creation of radiation technological facilities for interim management of secondary radioactive waste 3. The assessment showed that environmental remediation work at the site could take 12 to 20 years, depending on various technologies that could be used for spent fuel and radioactive waste management. REFERENCES Bylkin, B. K., Yu. Ye. Gorlinsky, V. A. Kutkov, O. A. Nikolsky, V. I. Pavlenko, Yu. V. Sivintsev, and B. S. Stepennov. 2007. Multifactor analysis application for option selection of end state and en- vironmental remediation strategy for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste temporary storage site in Gremikha village. Preprint IAE—6456/3. Moscow: Russian Research Center—Kurchatov Institute (in Russian). Gorlinsky, Yu. Ye., V. A. Kutkov, and N. K. Shandala. 2009. Criteria for environmental rehabilitation of the temporary storage site for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste in Gremikha village. Pp. 152-160 in Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials: International Workshop Proceedings. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

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10 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SUPPORTING BIBLIOGRAPHY Akhunov, V. D., Ye. O. Zhukov, V. A. Pavlov, B. P. Papkovsky, Ye. N. Samarin, B. S. Stepennov, and N. S. Khlopkin. 2005. The coastal base in Gremikha village: Conditions, problems, and propos- als for management of irradiated fuel rods from pressurized water reactors. Bulletin on Issues of Nuclear Submarine Dismantlement 4(8) (in Russian). Crabol, B. 2006. Site specific levels for remediation: CEA experience. Presentation at the Contact Expert Group Workshop on Strategic Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management and Remedia- tion of Contaminated Sites, April 26-27, 2006, Balsta, Stockholm, Sweden. Available online at www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NEFW/CEG/documents/ws0200_1E.pdf. Additional papers and workshop agenda available at www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NEFW/CEG/ceg_ws0200. html. Federal State Unitary Enterprise InterSEN. 2002. Hygiene requirements for safety and nutritional value of foodstuffs. Sanitary-epidemiological regulations and norms, SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. 2002. Moscow: InterSEN, 168 pp. (in Russian). Federal State Unitary Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO). 2004. Annual Report of the Industrial and Sanitary Laboratory for 2004 on ZB 1, OB 2, SevRAO. Snezhnogorsk, Murmansk Oblast: CGSEN–120, 26 pp. (in Russian). Gorlinsky, Yu. Ye., O. A. Nikolsky, B. P. Papkovsky, Yu. V. Sivintsev, B. S. Stepennov, et al. 2005. Gremikha Coastal Maintenance Base: Conditions, problems, and prospects for environmental remediation. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk: Energetika, No. 5 (in Russian). Gorlinsky, Yu. E., O. A. Nikolsky, Yu. V. Sivintsev, B .S. Stepennov, et al. 2005. Challenges of the environmental remediation of the former Russian Navy coastal maintenance base in Gremikha village in terms of development predictions and tendencies of the closed administrative city of Ostrovnoi, Murmansk Oblast. Bulletin on Issues of Nuclear Submarine Dismantlement 4(8) (in Russian). International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 2005. Selection of Decommissioning strategies: Issues and Factors. IAEA TECDOC-1478. Vienna: IAEA. IAEA. 2006. Release of sites from regulatory control on termination of practices. Safety Guide No. WS-G-5.1. Vienna: IAEA. Kurchatov Institute. 2003. Analysis of conditions, development, and implementation of proposals on urgent actions to ensure environmental remediation of the Gremikha facility. Moscow: Russian Research Center—Kurchatov Institute. Kurchatov Institute. 2006. Implementation of total engineering and radiation study of marine areas at the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste temporary storage site in Gremikha village (SevRAO OB 2 area). Moscow: Russian Research Center—Kurchatov Institute. Kutkov, V. A. 2007. Evolution of the system of radiation safety guarantees in light of new ICRP and IAEA Recommendations. ANRI 1(48):2-24 (in Russian). Available online at www.doza. ru/anry/archie/200_1.shtml. Kutkov, V. A., V. V. Tkachenko, and V. P. Romantsov. 2003. Radiation safety of nuclear power station plant personnel. Textbook, V. A. Kutkov, ed. Moscow—Obninsk: Atomtekhenergo and Obninsk State Technical University of Nuclear Energy, 344 pp. (in Russian). Pillette, L. 2003. Experience in site characterization and cleanup at the CEA Center of Fontenay-aux- Roses. Presentation at the Contact Experts Group Workshop on Remediation of the Gremikha Site, October 29-31, 2003, Cadarache, France. Available online at www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/ NE/NEFW/CEG/documents/ws10200_pillette-e.pdf. Additional papers and workshop agenda available at www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NEFW/CEG/ceg_ws10200.html. Russian Federal Medical-Biological Agency and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. 2005. Report on Research Effort “Radiological Impact Assessment on the Population at Routine and Beyond Design Operation Mode of Temporary Storage Sites for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Ra-

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11 ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION dioactive Waste in SevRAO Branches during their Operation, Decommissioning, Remediation, and Delicensing.” Task 2, Project 2. Moscow, 50 pp. Sivintsev, Yu. V., S. M. Vakulovsky, A. P. Vasiliev, et al. 2005. Radioecological Consequences of Radioactive Waste Flows in the Seas around Russia (“White Book—2000”). Moscow: IzdAT (in Russian). Sivintsev, Yu. V., V. L. Vysotsky, R. I. Kalinin, V. G. Aden, and A. P. Vasiliev. 2006. Quantitative criteria for the site remediation of coastal technical bases. Nuclear Energy 101(1):35-49 (in Russian). State Committee on Sanitation and Epidemic Control (Goskomsanepidemnadzor). 2005. Radiation hygiene certificate OB No. 2 for SevRAO in 2004. 2005. Ostrovnoi, 4 pp. (in Russian).