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Deactivation efforts in the city of Moscow have been carried out on the grounds of enterprises, in apartments, on playgrounds, at construction sites, and in forest parks, cultural and recreational parks, nature preserves, museums, and other areas where large numbers of residents and guests of the city assemble for recreation. The items being decontaminated have included both individual objects (ampoules; pieces of metal, concrete, and slag; instruments and their components; household items; oil pipes; and so forth) and localized (from 1 to 10 m2) and more expansive (>10 m2) areas of radioactive contamination in buildings and on their grounds.

The past 20 years have seen a serious strengthening of the regulatory and legislative base for operations involving radioactive substances. Such changes have meant that radioactive waste previously buried at industrial dump sites must be removed, processed, and buried in accordance with current requirements. Since the time when a number of nuclear industry enterprises began operating in the 1940s, the city of Moscow has increased in size many times over, meaning that historical or unauthorized radioactive waste burial sites previously located outside the city limits are now located in densely populated areas. Furthermore, the city has no complete database on enterprises that previously worked with ionizing radiation sources but were closed or restructured as a result of economic policy changes during the past 20 years. Most of them changed ownership, some exist without any owners, and documentation on ionizing radiation sources has been lost.

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