of environmental side effects, and so forth). This means that institutional control must be maintained over such sites for a prolonged period.
Long-term post-rehabilitation oversight entails a differential approach to organizing systems of measures to manage and monitor sites after restoration work is completed, including establishing administrative responsibility, a legal regime, environmental monitoring systems, and safety measures. The legal framework for this sort of activity in the Russian Federation has yet to be clearly defined; therefore, a top priority task is to analyze the Russian Federation’s existing legal, regulatory, and methodological documents related to the rehabilitation of radionuclide-contaminated areas and the subsequent monitoring of their status. An optimal balance must be found between social and economic factors on the one hand and the degree of protection on the other.
In recent years the IAEA has initiated a broad program of efforts touching on all aspects of environmental rehabilitation. In particular, drawing from the experience of the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Canada, and other countries in this field, the agency is conducting analyses and holding international meetings under the heading “Management of Long-Term Radiological Liabilities: Stewardship Challenges.” Part of this activity involves developing a new approach to the problem of reducing the radiation risk from the effects of sites left after the decommissioning of radiation-hazard facilities. This approach entails shifting away from the idea of rehabilitating the site to “green field” status and instead establishing long-term institutional monitoring.
Based on the regulatory and legal framework, the creation of which was also a task under the project, categorization rules and criteria will be developed as well as classification principles (by levels of potential danger to the public and the environment) for areas subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of the activities of Rosatom enterprises. Data will be systematically organized on the regulatory, legal, and informational content for a system of accounting and institutional control over ionizing radiation sources in the Russian Federation. Plans also call for the creation of a project Web site with a system for assigning user access rights to the information contained. An analytical review will be prepared of Russian experience in the environmental rehabilitation of radiation-contaminated areas, including the organizational, legal, technological, medical-sanitary, economic, and social aspects of such efforts. Based on the information infrastructure and on an analysis of existing domestic and foreign regulatory and legal documentation, the foundations will be laid for a computerized decision support system regarding forms and limits of institutional control. The final stage in the project will be the development of proposals on the formation of a strategic plan for long-term institutional control (including after rehabilitation) over radiation-contaminated areas in the Russian Federation (taking IAEA developments into account).