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Appendix A
Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AI Adequate Intake

AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

AMS Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

ARS Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

BMI body mass index

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

CN Child nutrition

CNP Child Nutrition Programs

CPI Consumer Price Index

DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

DFE dietary folate equivalent

DGA Dietary Guidelines for Americans

DRI Dietary Reference Intakes

EAR Estimated Average Requirement

EER Estimated Energy Requirement

FAFH food away from home

FBMP food-based menu planning

FNDDS Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies

FNS Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

FY fiscal year

g gram

G/B grain/bread

HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

IOM Institute of Medicine, The National Academies

IU international unit

K kindergarten

kcal kilocalorie/calorie

mg milligram



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Appendix A Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Adequate Intake AI Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture AMS Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture ARS body mass index BMI Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC Code of Federal Regulations CFR Child nutrition CN Child Nutrition Programs CNP Consumer Price Index CPI Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DASH dietary folate equivalent DFE Dietary Guidelines for Americans DGA Dietary Reference Intakes DRI Estimated Average Requirement EAR Estimated Energy Requirement EER food away from home FAFH food-based menu planning FBMP Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies FNDDS Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture FNS fiscal year FY gram g grain/bread G/B U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HHS Institute of Medicine, The National Academies IOM international unit IU kindergarten K kilocalorie/calorie kcal milligram mg 125

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126 NUTRITION STANDARDS AND MEAL REQUIREMENTS meat/meat alternate M/MA nutrient-based menu planning NBMP National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and NCHS Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES National School Lunch Act NSLA National School Lunch Program NSLP offer versus serve OVS ounce oz Public Law P.L. probability proportional to size PPS retinol activity/retinol activity equivalent RA/RAE Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA retinol equivalent RE Recommended Energy Allowance REA School Breakfast Program SBP school food authority SFA School Meals Initiative SMI School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment Study SNDA target median intake TMI teaspoon tsp microgram μg Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA vegetable/fruit V/F Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and WIC Children

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APPENDIX A 127 GLOSSARY Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges The range of intakes of an energy source that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease yet that can provide adequate amounts of essential nutrients. Adequate Intake A recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group or groups of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate. Alternate Menu Planning Approaches (Any Reasonable Approach) Menu planning approaches that are adopted or developed by state food authorities or state agencies and that differ from the standard approaches. The state agency should be contacted for specific details, as alternate approaches may require prior state agency review and approval. Assisted Nutrient Standard Menu Planning Approach One of the nutrient-based menu planning approaches that provides schools with menus developed and nutritionally analyzed by other sources. These sources may include the state agency, other state food agencies authorities, consultants, or food service management companies. The supplier of the assisted nutrient standard menus must also develop and provide recipes, food product specifications, and preparation techniques. Dietary Reference Intakes A family of nutrient reference values. Enhanced Food-Based Menu Planning Approach One of the two food-based menu planning approaches established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture that uses meal patterns with food items from specific food group components in specific amounts, by age-grade group, to plan meals. It is similar to the traditional food-based menu planning approach, except that it uses different age-grade groups and a different number of servings of vegetables/fruits and grains/breads. Entrée Under the nutrient-based menu planning approaches, an entrée is a school lunch menu item that is a combination of foods or a single food item offered as the main course, as defined by the menu planner. The entrée is the central focus of the meal and forms the framework around which the rest of the meal is planned. Estimated Average Requirement The usual daily intake level that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a life-stage and gender group. Estimated Energy Requirement For children, the estimated energy requirement represents the sum of the dietary energy intake predicted to maintain energy balance for the child’s age, weight, height, and activity level plus an amount to cover normal growth and development. Food-Based Menu Planning One of two approaches used to implement the Nutrition Standards. It focuses on types and amounts of foods. Food-based menu planning, as established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, includes so-called traditional and enhanced approaches. Food Component One of four food groups that comprise reimbursable meals planned under a food-based menu-planning approach. The four food components are meat/meat alternate, grains/breads, fruits/vegetables, and fluid milk. Food Item One of the five foods from the four food components required to be offered in school lunches under food-based menu planning approaches or one of the four foods required to be offered in school breakfasts.

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128 NUTRITION STANDARDS AND MEAL REQUIREMENTS Indicator Nutrients See Nutrition Standards Key Nutrients See Nutrition Standards Meal Patterns A term used to refer to food items under the food-based menu planning approach as specified for various age-grade groups. Meal Requirements The set of standards used to develop menus and meals so as to implement the Nutrition Standards. Meal Requirements may be met through either food-based menu planning approaches or nutrient-based menu planning approaches. Menu Item Any single food or combination of foods, except condiments, served in a meal under the nutrient-based menu planning approaches (nutrient standard menu planning and assisted nutrient standard menu planning approaches). All menu items or foods offered as part of the reimbursable meal will be counted toward meeting the nutrition standards. National School Lunch Program The program under which participating schools operate a nonprofit lunch program, in accordance with 7 CFR Part 210. Nonreimbursable Meals Meals that are served but that cannot be claimed for reimbursement in the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, such as adult meals, à la carte meals, and second meals served to students. Nutrient Analysis The process of developing or monitoring school menus on the basis of an analysis of the nutrients in the menu items and foods offered over a school week to determine if the specific levels of a set of key nutrients and calories are met for the applicable age-grade group. Nutrient-Based Menu Planning One of two approaches used to implement the Nutrition Standards. It makes use of computer software to plan menus consistent with the Nutrition Standards. As established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the approach includes the so-called nutrient standard approach and the assisted approach. Nutrient Standards See Nutrition Standards Nutrients and Other Dietary Components A term used to refer collectively to any nutrition- related substance that may be encompassed by the Nutrition Standards, including calories, vitamins, minerals, food components such as saturated fat and whole grains, and food categories such as fruits and vegetables. Nutrients of Concern See Nutrition Standards Nutrition Standards A collective term for the nutrition goals for school meals that currently includes nutrients and other dietary components that are required as well as those that are recommended. For this report, nutrient standards are encompassed by the Nutrition Standards. Other related terms: Indicator Nutrients Term used to refer to nutrients in the Nutrition Standards (or in other government provisions and programs) for which there may not be concerns about adequate or excessive intake but that serve as a proxy for foods and dietary patterns likely to include a range of important nutrients. The term was not specifically used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the 1995 implementing regulations. Key Nutrients The required components of the Nutrition Standards for which minimum requirements for school meals have been established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These are calories, calories from total fat, calories from saturated fat, protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin C.

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APPENDIX A 129 Nutrient Standards Quantitative values derived by using special calculations to quantify the amounts of the key nutrients within the Nutrition Standards for age-grade groups on the basis of a 5-day average. Nutrients of Concern A term that has evolved over time to refer to nutrients for which there are indications that current intakes are too low or too high. It was not specifically used by U.S. Department of Agriculture in the 1995 regulations for school meals. Offer Versus Serve For lunch, offer versus serve is required in high school but is optional in junior high and elementary schools. Offer versus serve is optional in all grades for breakfast. For Food-Based Menu Planning Approaches High school students must be offered a complete lunch of at least five food items, but they may select three full portions of the items for the meal to be qualified for reimbursement. For junior high and elementary schools, students can be required to select either three or four food items. Under offer versus serve, a reimbursable breakfast must contain four food items, from which the student must choose at least three full portions. For Nutrient-Based Menu Planning Approaches Children must be offered the planned lunch that meets the Nutrition Standard and that includes, at a minimum, an entrée, fluid milk as a beverage, and at least one side dish. If the planned lunch contains three menu items, students can decline one menu item (they cannot decline the entrée). If the planned lunch contains more than three menu items, students cannot decline more than two. A reimbursable breakfast must be the planned breakfast that meets the Nutrition Standard and that contains a minimum of three menu items, one of which must be fluid milk, from which children may decline any one item. Planning Model The explanation and rationale for the approach used to establish the Nutrition Standards. Recommended Dietary Allowances The average daily dietary nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life-stage and gender group. Reimbursable Meal A school meal that meets the U.S. Department of Agriculture Meal Requirements and Nutrition Standard, that is served to an eligible student, and that is priced as an entire meal rather than priced on the basis of individual items. Such meals qualify for reimbursement with federal funds. School Breakfast Program The program under which participating schools operate a nonprofit breakfast program in accordance with 7 CFR Part 220. School Food Authority The governing body that is responsible for the administration of one or more schools and that has the legal authority to operate the school meal programs therein or that is otherwise approved by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture to operate the school meal programs. School Meals Initiative The School Meals Initiative includes the regulations that define how the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and other Nutrition Standards apply to school meals. This initiative includes actions that support state agencies, school food authorities, and communities in improving school meals and encouraging children to improve their overall diets. Schoolchildren Children in the United States who are school age (4–18 years old).

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130 NUTRITION STANDARDS AND MEAL REQUIREMENTS Side Dish(es) Any menu item (except condiments) that is offered in addition to the entrée and fluid milk under the nutrient-based menu planning approaches for the school lunch or any menu item offered in addition to fluid milk for the school breakfast. State Agency State agency refers to (1) the state educational agency or (2) any other agency of the state that has been designated by the governor or other appropriate executive or legislative authority of the state and approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to administer the program in schools. Target Median Intake Statistically derived target intake for nutrients used to plan diets for groups. Tolerable Upper Intake Level The highest daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Traditional Food-Based Menu Planning Approach One of the two food-based menu planning approaches established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture that use meal patterns with food items from specific food components in quantities appropriate for established age-grade groups. Usual Nutrient Intake Data based on 24-hour recall and statistically adjusted to better estimate usual intake; for this report, reference to nutrient intake includes energy (calories).