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Nutrition Standards and Meal Requirements for National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs: Phase I. Proposed Approach for Recommending Revisions Appendix B A Selection of Laws and Regulations Governing the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program Year Law or Regulation Outcome 1946 Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, P.L. 79-396 Established the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) as a permanent program 1949 Agricultural Act of 1949, Section 416, P.L. 81-439 Granted authority to the Commodity Credit Corporation to donate commodities to various agencies, including the school lunch programs 1966 Child Nutrition Act of 1966, P.L. 89-642 Began the School Breakfast Program (SBP) as a pilot project 1970 National School Lunch and Child Nutrition Act Amendments, P.L. 91-248 Authorized special assistance fund for all schools serving free and reduced-price lunches, established uniform national guidelines to determine eligibility for free and reduced-price meals, and included several other key elements 1973 Definition of “milk,” Federal Register, 38:21777, August 13, 1973 Allowed schools to serve low-fat or skim milk 1975 Amendments to the National School Lunch Act and the Child Nutrition Act, P.L. 94-105 Amended the Child Nutrition Act to make the SBP permanent; mandated offer versus serve (OVS) to reduce food waste in the NSLP 1976 Implementation Rule, Federal Register, 41:23695, June 11, 1976 Dropped butter and fortified margarine as part of the school lunch meal pattern; established OVS in high schools participating in the NSLP 1977 National School Lunch Act and Child Nutrition Amendments P.L. 95-166 Authorized OVS for middle and junior high schools at the discretion of the school food authority
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Nutrition Standards and Meal Requirements for National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs: Phase I. Proposed Approach for Recommending Revisions 1978 Nutritional Requirements (Interim Rule), Federal Register, 43:37166, August 22, 1978 Required school lunches to meet one-third of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) over a week’s time 1980 NSLP; Nutritional Requirements (Final Rule), Federal Register, 45:32502, May 16, 1980 Recommended (not required) that schools vary portion sizes for four age groups: 1–2 years, 3–4 years, grades kindergarten–3 (ages 5–8), and grades 4–12 (ages 9 years and older); recommended larger portion sizes for grades 7–12; schools allowed to serve one meal pattern for all children in grades 4–12 1981 Omnibus Reconciliation Act, P.L. 97-35 Created substantial reductions in meal reimbursement rates and commodity assistance; increased the charges to students for reduced-price lunches (from $0.20 to $0.40) and reduced-price breakfasts (from $0.10 to $0.30); expanded OVS to elementary schools and preschools at the discretion of the school food authority 1986 Amendments to the National School Lunch Act and Child Nutrition Act, P.L. 99-591 Extended the OVS option to school breakfasts 1988 Amendment of the National School Lunch Act, P.L. 100-135 Added three cents to the school breakfast rate 1987 Commodity Distribution and Reform Act, P.L. 100-237 Focused on the quality of commodities and authorized the testing of cash in lieu of commodities or commodity letter of credit 1989 1989 Reauthorization Act, P.L. 101-147 Provided start-up money for the initiation of breakfast programs 1994 Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act, P.L. 103-448, Sec.106(b) Required that the NSLP and the SBP meals meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans as they evolve; requires the use of a variety of meal-planning approaches, including food-based methods 1995 National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs: School Meal Initiatives for Healthy Children (Final Rule), Federal Register, 60:31188, June 13, 1995 Allowed nutrient-based and food-based menu planning; revised the meal pattern by increasing the quantities of vegetables/fruits and grains and phased out the traditional meal pattern; set nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 1989 RDAs; established specific minimum standards for key nutrients and calories; established the following age-grade groups: prekindergarten, kindergarten–6, 7–12, optional kindergarten–3
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Nutrition Standards and Meal Requirements for National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs: Phase I. Proposed Approach for Recommending Revisions 1996 Healthy Meals for Children Act of 1996, P.L.104-149 Authorized the use of the traditional meal pattern and any other reasonable approach 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, P.L. 104-193 Required that lunches and breakfasts provide one-third and one-half of RDAs over a week, respectively (required by existing program regulation) 1998 William F. Goodling Child Nutrition Reauthorization Act of 1998, P.L. 105-336 Authorized pilot programs for universal breakfast programs in some elementary schools and extended pilot programs for universal lunch programs and the commodity programs 2000 National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Additional Menu Planning Approaches (Final Rule), Federal Register, 65:26904, May 9, 2000 Reinstated traditional food-based menu planning and established an alternate menu-planning approach, thus expanding the menu-planning approaches to five options 2001 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110 Reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987; provides homeless children with services comparable to those offered to other children in the school, including school nutrition programs; students are automatically enrolled in the program without submission of applications for free or reduced-price meals 2004 Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, P.L. 108-265 Required the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture to issue rules with specific serving recommendations to increase the consumption of foods emphasized by the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans; mandated that local education agencies develop a local wellness policy to enhance the school nutrition environment; permanently authorized the Fruit and Vegetable Program (which is available to a limited number of states and schools and serves the fruits and vegetables outside the school meal programs); mandated that schools offer fluid milk with a variety of fat contents
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