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Appendix C Comparison of 1995 and 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans This appendix presents a table comparing the 1995 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (HHS/USDA, 1995) with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (HHS/USDA, 2005). 135
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136 TABLE C-1 Comparison of Key Recommendations in the 1995 and 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans with Regard to Topics Relevant to the Revision of the Meal Pattern and Nutrition Standard Requirements of the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program 1995 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Guideline Key Context in Text Focus Area Key Recommendations Eat a variety of foods To obtain the nutrients and other substances Adequate nutrients Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and needed for good health, vary the foods you eat. within calorie needs beverages within and among the basic foods Use foods from the base of the Food Guide groups while choosing foods that limit the Pyramid as the foundation of your meal. intake of saturated fat and trans fats, Choose different foods within each food group cholesterol, added sugars, and salt (grain products, vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products, protein-rich plant foods (beans, nuts), and protein-rich animal foods (lean Meet recommended intakes within energy meat, poultry, fish, and eggs). needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, Use foods from the base of the Food Guide such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pyramid as the foundation of your meal. (USDA) Food Guide or the Dietary Growing children [and] teenage girls … have Approaches to Stop Hypertension(DASH) higher needs for some nutrients (calcium and Eating Plan. iron). Choose lean and low-fat foods and beverages most often. Balance the food you eat Emphasis is on increasing physical activity, Weight management To maintain body weight in a healthy range, with physical activity— aiming for at least 30 minutes of moderate balance calories from foods and beverages with maintain or improve physical activity on most days of the week, eating calories expended. your weight foods that are lower in calories, and evaluating To prevent gradual weight gain over time, body weight. make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity. Overweight children: reduce the rate of body weight gain while allowing growth and development. Consult a health care provider before placing a child on a weight-reduction diet.
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Choose a diet with Get most calories from grain products (6–11 Food groups to Consume a sufficient amount of fruits and plenty of grain products, servings), vegetables (3–5 servings), and fruits encourage vegetables while staying within energy needs. vegetables, and fruits (2–4 servings) each day. Two cups of fruit and 2½ cups of vegetables per day are recommended for a reference Eat a variety of fiber-containing foods (whole 2,000-calorie intake, with higher or lower grains and whole-grain products); dry beans, amounts depending on the calorie level. lentils, and peas; and fiber-rich vegetables and Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each fruits). day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week. Consume whole-grain products often; at least half the grains should be whole grains. Children 2 to 8 years of age should consume 2 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products. Children 9 years of age and older should consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat or equivalent milk products. Choose a diet low in fat, Use high-fat foods sparingly. Fats Choose less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fat, and Choose a diet low in fat (no more than 30 saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day cholesterol percent of calories from fat). of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid Choose a diet low in saturated fat (no more consumption as low as possible. than 10 percent of calories from saturated fat). Keep total fat intake … to between 25 and 35 Choose a diet low in cholesterol (300 mg of percent of calories for children and cholesterol is identified as the Daily Value or adolescents 4 to 18 years of age, with most fats cholesterol on the Nutrition Facts Label of coming from sources of polyunsaturated and food packages). monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, Transition to fat limitations applies between and vegetable oils. ages 2 and 5 years. When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products, make choices that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free. 137
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138 Choose a diet moderate This helps maintain a nutritious diet and Carbohydrates Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole in sugars healthy weight. grains often. Sparing use of sugars is indicated for those Choose and prepare foods and beverages with with low calorie needs. little added sugars or caloric sweeteners, such Avoid excessive snacking. as the amounts suggested by the USDA Food Regular daily dental hygiene … and an Guide and the DASH Eating Plan. adequate intake of fluoride are suggested. Reduce the incidence of dental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less often. Choose a diet moderate Sodium is one of several factors that affect Sodium and potassium Consume less than 2,300 mg of sodium per in salt and sodium blood pressure. day. Choose and prepare foods with little salt. At Most Americans consume more salt than is the same time, consume potassium-rich foods, needed. such as fruits and vegetables. Nutrition Facts Labels can help one identify foods that are lower in sodium (2,400 mg of sodium per day is identified as the Daily Value on Nutrition Facts Label). NOTE: Not all text is quoted verbatim. Rewording was necessary, especially when the text touches on a subject without making a specific recommendation. Unless otherwise noted, the text is quoted verbatim. Italicized font denotes a new or revised recommendation. If a recommendation for children differs from that for adults, only the recommendation for children is given. Guidelines that pertain specifically to physical activity, food safety, and alcohol consumption were omitted because of lack of relevance to the committee’s work. SOURCES: Derived from HHS/USDA, 1995, 2005.