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NHANES 1999–2002,1 and on children’s usual nutrient intakes2 and body weight distributions, on the basis of data from NHANES 1999–2004.

  • School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study–III (SNDA-III) (USDA, 2007a). SNDA-III was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and collected data from a nationally representative sample of public school children in grades 1–12. The study’s multistage sampling approach first sampled school food authorities (SFAs) in the 48 contiguous states, then the schools served by those SFAs, and then the children who attended those schools. SNDA-III provides data on children’s usual nutrient intakes. Data were collected during the 2004–2005 school year.

Table 4-1 summarizes information about each of these main data sources and how they were used in the committee’s review. Additional details about the data collection methods, the samples analyzed, and the analysis methods are provided in Appendix I. Neither of the two main data sources included information about trans fat or vitamin D intakes, but the committee briefly addressed these two topics in its review. To supplement the available data, the committee reviewed published reports of NHANES data on (1) body mass index and the prevalence of obesity, and (2) biochemical indicators of nutritional status.

TABLE 4-1 Key Data Sources Used to Assess Food and Nutrient Needs of Schoolchildren


2008 Diet Quality Reporta


Data reviewed by the Committee



One-day food group intakes based on MyPyramid*

Usual nutrient intakes

BMI Distribution


  • Children (ages 5–18 years)

  • One-day intakes of MyPyramid food groups: 2,597 children

  • Usual nutrient intakes: 3,546 children

  • BMI distribution: 3,495 children

2,314 children (ages 6–18 years)

Data collection period

  • One-day intakes of MyPyramid food groups: 1999–2002

  • Usual nutrient intakes and BMI distribution: 1999–2004

2004–2005 school year

NOTE: — = data not included; √ = data included; SNDA=School Nutrition Dietary Assessment.

*Data on food group intakes were based on a single 24-hour recall and were not adjusted to reflect usual food intakes. Analysis was limited appropriately to estimates of group means.


aUSDA, 2008l;

bUSDA, 2007a.


MyPyramid intakes could not be estimated for children in the NHANES 2002–2004 sample because a companion database that is needed to generate these estimates (the MyPyramid Equivalents Database for USDA Food Codes [version 1.0; USDA, 2006b]), provides data only for NHANES 1999–2000 and 2001–2002.


“Usual nutrient intakes” refers to 24-hour recall data that have been statistically adjusted, following methods recommended by the IOM, to better estimate long-run (usual) intakes (ISU, 1997; Nusser et al., 1996); for this report, reference to nutrient intake includes energy (calories).

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