FIGURE 1-1 Federal budget by department: actual spending FY 2007 (showing mandatory and discretionary spending).

FIGURE 1-1 Federal budget by department: actual spending FY 2007 (showing mandatory and discretionary spending).

*This category includes the Corps of Engineers, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Science Foundation (NSF), and Small Business Administration.

SOURCE: OMB (2008a).

More than sheer size determines the importance of a governmental activity. HHS touches the lives of virtually every American. Its agencies help pay for medical care for elderly, disabled, and low-income Americans; they protect our population against domestic and global health threats; they ensure the safety of our food and medications—regulating more than $1 trillion of the U.S. economy annually (FDA, 2008); they search for new scientific advances, tools, and techniques to prevent, manage, and cure diseases, including through grants that support the work of universities and scientists in all U.S. states and territories; they



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