National Institutes of Health, and many other federal agencies. He is also on the advisory boards for the Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy and the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness and serves on the editorial board of Evaluation Review and other journals. He is an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the American Statistical Association and a lifetime national associate of the National Academies. His work focuses on research methods for determining the severity and scope of social and education problems, implementation of programs and policies, and estimating the effects and the effectiveness of interventions. He contributes to work on randomized trials in education and training, welfare reform, health services, housing, and crime and justice, with a particular interest in the assessment or improvement of programs sponsored by federal agencies in the United States and by private foundations. He has a B.E. from Stevens Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. from Iowa State University.

Helen F. Ladd is the Edgar Thompson professor of public policy studies and professor of economics at Duke University. Most of her current research focuses on education policy. At the National Research Council, she cochaired the Committee on Education Finance, which issued two volumes: Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance and Making Money Matter: Financing America’s Schools. She has written articles on charter schools, school-based accountability, market-based reforms in education, parental choice and competition, and a series of papers on teacher quality and student achievement. Currently she is continuing her research on teacher labor markets and teacher quality using North Carolina data as well as on various issues related to charter schools and parental choice of schools. Ladd has also written extensively on the fiscal implications of growth, property taxation, education finance, tax and expenditure limitations, intergovernmental aid, state economic development, and the fiscal problems of U.S. cities. She has been active in the National Tax Association (serving as president in 1993-1994) and the Association for Public Policy and Management and has consulted on tax policy and intergovernmental relations for all three levels of government. She has a B.A. from Wellesley College, an M.A. from the London School of Economics, and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.

Martin Orland is director of evaluation and policy research at WestEd, a research and development organization specializing in education and human services. He leads a nationwide staff of methodologists, research scientists, content experts, and evaluators, with the responsibility for ensuring that their work employs the highest standards of methodological rigor and provides usable knowledge to decision makers. Previously he

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