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 BOX 5-9 Step 4 in the Number Core Grade 1 See, Say, Count, and Write Tens-Units and Ones-Units from 1 to 100Children at particular ages/grades may exceed the specified numbers and be able to work correctly with larger numbers. The numbers for each age/grade are the foundational and achievable content for children at this age/grade. The major types of new learning for each age/grade are given in italics. Each level assumes that children have had sufficient learning experiences at the lower level to learn that content; many children can still learn the content at a level without having fully mastered the content at the lower level if they have sufficient time to learn and practice.Cardinality: Relates patterns in number word list to 100 to quantities of tens and of ones: can see the tens and ones quantities in numbers from 10 to 99 (e.g., 68 = 60 + 8); sees the 60 both as 60 ones (sixty) and as 6 tens; can make drawn quantities to show tens and ones. Number word list: May count groups of ten using a tens list (1 ten, 2 tens, etc.) as well as the decade list 10, 20, 30, …. 1-to-1 counting correspondences: Extends counting single units to counting a group of ten as a 10-unit and shifts from counting these units of ten to counting by ones when counting left-over ones units: arranges things in groups of ten (or uses prearranged groups or drawings) and counts the groups by tens and then shifts to a count by ones for the leftover single things: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, or 1 ten, 2 tens, 3 tens, 4 tens, 5 tens, 6 tens, 6 tens and 1 one, 6 tens and 2 ones, 6 tens and 3 ones, 6 tens and 4 ones, 6 tens and 5 ones, 6 tens and 6 ones, 6 tens and 7 ones, 6 tens and 8 ones. Written number symbols: Extends reading and writing to all two-digit numbers 1 to 99 and understands that the tens digit refers to groups of tens and the ones digit refers to groups of ones; also sees that the 0 from the tens number is hiding behind the ones number so can see 68 as 60 + 8. Integrates all of the above for numbers 1 to 100 so that n−ty = n tens (e.g., 60 is 6 tens); the counting by tens and by ones represents sets of tens and of ones; a 2-digit numeral like 68 = 60 + 8 and 68 also means 6 tens and 8 ones.

the kindergarten concept that ten ones equal one ten can learn to use visual representations of tens that show each ten as one ten.

Children at this step need to be able to make drawings of tens and of ones so that they can represent numbers to use when adding and subtracting. Making such drawings can also help with the consolidation of the two-digit numerals, for example, 68 = 60 + 8 as sixty plus eight and as six tens plus eight. Place value cards in which the ones card covers the 0 in the tens card can also help eliminate the typical errors of children hearing 68 as sixty eight and therefore writing what they hear: 608 instead of 68.

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