TABLE 72 Classification of State Mathematics Early Learning Standards by Content Area and Focal Area
Content/Focal Area

Mean%

SD

Minimum %

Maximum %

Number and Operations





Number sense

24.1

26.6

0

100

1to1 correspondence

13.8

10.3

0

43

Number word list

13.1

10.2

0

50

Written number symbols

11.4

11.6

0

40

Perceptional comparisons

9.6

10.3

0

50

Combining/taking apart

7.3

9.6

0

33

Cardinality

5.4

7.2

0

25

Estimation

4.7

8.4

0

33

Change

3.9

7.9

0

33

Ordinal numbers

3.8

6.6

0

25

Counting comparisons

2.2

9.0

0

60

Additive comparisons

0.6

2.1

0

11

Place value

0.2

1.6

0

11

Geometry





Properties of shapes

39.6

17.9

0

100

Spatial reasoning

25.3

23.2

0

100

Analyzing and comparing shapes

13.3

15.8

0

67

Location and directionality

12.2

15.5

0

50

Composing/decomposing shapes

6.6

10.7

0

40

Symmetry

1.6

5.3

0

25

Transformation of shapes

1.5

6.0

0

33

Visualization of shapes

0.0

0.0

0

0

Measurement





Measurement of objects

33.9

25.3

0

100

Comparing objects

27.1

26.0

0

100

Time

26.9

23.3

0

100

Measurable attributes

12.7

16.0

0

50

Composing objects

0.0

0.0

0

0

NOTE: For number and operations n = 49 states; for geometry n = 48 as one state had no geometry standards; for measurement n = 47 as two states had no measurement standards. Percentages represent the number of a state’s standards in a focal area divided by the total number of standards in the content area (content areas are number and operation, geometry, and measurement).
SOURCE: ScottLittle (2008).

The kindergarten learning standards for each state were coded into the five PSSM mathematical content areas or strands: (1) number and operation, (2) geometry, (3) measurement, (4) algebra, and (5) data analysis/probability (Clements, 2004; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000). Results allow an examination of which of these mathematical strands are emphasized across and within states. Relative emphasis devoted to each strand was calculated as a percentage of standards in that strand within the total number of mathematics standards.