Child-guided experiences refer to experiences in which children acquire knowledge and skills through their own exploration and through interactions with objects and with peers.

Composing/decomposing refers to putting together and taking apart and applies to numbers as well as to geometry and measurement. For example, 10 ones are composed to form one group of 10 and 6 can be decomposed into 5 + 1. Two identical right triangles can be composed to form a rectangle, and a hexagon can be decomposed into six triangles. Measurement itself requires viewing the attribute to be measured as composed of units.

Computational fluency refers to accurate, efficient, and flexible computation with basic operations.

Credentialing refers to the process of demonstrating and receiving formal recognition from an organization for achieving a pre-defined level of expertise in education.

Direct instruction refers to situations in which teachers give information or present content directly to children.

Early childhood education (ECE) teachers refer to all personnel whose primary role is to provide direct instructional services for young children. Included in this category are lead teachers, assistant teachers, aides, and family child care providers.

ECE teaching workforce refers to those who carry out both instructional and noninstructional roles in ECE settings. The term is an inclusive one that embraces teachers, others who work in the ECE settings and whose primary responsibility is not instructional (e.g., administrators), and individuals who work in settings that support ECE (e.g., resource and referral coordinators).

Encouragement and affirmation refers to feedback that relates to teachers’ abilities to motivate children to sustain their efforts and engagement.

Explicit instruction refers to all of a teachers’ instructional actions and interactions that are not unplanned or incidental.

Feedback loops refer to sustained exchanges between a teacher and child (or group of children) that leads the child to a better or deeper understanding of a particular idea.

Finding a pattern refers to looking for structures and organizing and classifying information. It is a mathematical process used throughout mathematics.

Focused curriculum (primary mathematics) refers to a curriculum that is designed and has the primary goal to teach mathematics with meaningful connections to children’s interest and prior knowledge.

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