dential appointee at the Educational Testing Service, where he served as vice president for research management from 1990 to 1999. Dr. Braun has published in the areas of mathematical statistics and stochastic modeling, the analysis of large-scale assessment data, test design, expert systems, and assessment technology. His current interests include the interplay of testing and education policy. He has investigated such issues as the structure of the black-white achievement gap, the relationship between state education policies and state education outputs, and the effectiveness of charter schools. Dr. Braun is a co-winner of the Palmer O. Johnson Award from the American Educational Research Association (1986), and a co-winner of the National Council for Measurement in Education award for Outstanding Technical Contributions to the Field of Educational Measurement (1999). He has a Ph.D. in mathematical statistics from Stanford University.

ANTHONY S. BRYK is the ninth president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. He held the Spencer Chair in Organizational Studies in the School of Education and the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University from 2004 until assuming Carnegie’s presidency in September 2008. Prior to Stanford, he held the Marshall Field IV Professor of Education post in the sociology department at the University of Chicago, where he founded the Center for Urban School Improvement which supports reform efforts in the Chicago Public Schools. Bryk also founded the Consortium on Chicago School Research, which has produced a range of studies to advance and assess urban school reform. In addition, he has made contributions to the development of new statistical methods in educational research. At Carnegie, he is leading work on strengthening the research and development infrastructure for improving teaching and learning. Dr. Bryk holds a B.S. from Boston College, an Ed.D. from Harvard University, and in 2010, was conferred an honorary doctorate by Boston College for his contributions to education reform.

EDWARD L. DECI is professor of psychology, Gowen professor in the social sciences, and codirector of the Human Motivation Program at the University of Rochester. For 40 years, Dr. Deci has been engaged in a program of research on human motivation, much of it in collaboration with Richard M. Ryan, that has led to and been organized by Self-Determination Theory. He has published ten books, including Intrinsic Motivation (1975); The Psychology of Self-Determination (1980); Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior (coauthored with R.M. Ryan, 1985); and Why We Do What We Do (1995). His writings have been translated into seven languages, including Japanese, German, and Spanish. He is a grantee of the National Institute of Mental Health, the

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