TABLE 4-2 Summary of Average Effects of Incentive Programs on Student Achievement Tests

Incentive Programs Test Outcome Distribution of Test Outcome Effects Across Analyses
Type of Stakes Overall Effect Sizea +Sig +Nonsig −Nonsig −Sig
Studies of NCLB and Its Predecessors
1. U.S. pre-NCLB Low 0.08 87% 11%
2A. U.S. NCLB Low 0.08 25% 50% 25% 0%
2B. U.S. NCLB Low 0.12b 33% 67% 0% 0%
2C. U.S. NCLB Low 0.22c 17% 83% 0% 0%
3. Chicago pre-NCLB Low 0.04 83% 22% 22% 22%
Studies of High School Exit Exams
4A. U.S. HS Exit Low 0.00 0% 50% 50% 0%
Studies of Incentive Experiments Using Rewards
5. India High 0.19 100% 0% 0% 0%
6. Israel Teachers-G High 0.11 75% 13% 13% 0%
7. Israel Teachers-I High 0.19 100% 0% 0% 0%
9. Kenya Teachers-G Low 0.01 0% 50% 50% 0%
10. Kenya Student Low 0.19 100% 0% 0% 0%
11. Nashville High 0.04 17% 42% 42% 0%
12. New York Low 0.01 0% 50% 50% 0%
13. Ohio Student High 0.06 29% 64% 7% 0%
14A. TAP-Chicago High –0.02 0% 50% 50% 0%
14B. TAP-2 states Low 0.01 39% 11% 17% 33%

NOTE: Teachers-G = Teachers-Group, Teachers-I = Teachers-Individually.

aEffect size is presented in standard deviation units.

bOmits eighth grade reading.

cOmits eighth grade reading; uses comparison to private schools during period of fluctuating enrollment.



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