Appendix A
Committee Biographies

Gerald T. Keusch, M.D. (Co-Chair), is associate provost for global health at Boston University, and associate dean for global health at Boston University School of Public Health. Prior to this appointment, Dr. Keusch served as director of the Fogarty International Center at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and associate director for international research in the office of the NIH Director. A graduate of Columbia College and Harvard Medical School, he is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He has been involved in clinical medicine, teaching, and research for his entire career, most recently as professor of medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine and senior attending physician and chief of the Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases at the New England Medical Center in Boston, MA. His research has ranged from the molecular pathogenesis of tropical infectious diseases to field research in nutrition, immunology, host susceptibility, and the treatment of tropical infectious diseases and HIV/AIDS. He was a faculty associate at Harvard Institute for International Development in the Health Office. Dr. Keusch is the author of more than 300 original publications, reviews, and book chapters, and he is the editor of 8 scientific books. He is the recipient of the Squibb, Finland, and Bristol awards for research excellence from the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and has delivered numerous named lectures on topics of science and global health at leading institutions around the world. He is currently involved in international health research and policy with the NIH, the United Nations, and the World Health Organization (WHO). He has been a member of several Institute of Medicine (IOM) consensus com-



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Appendix A Committee Biographies Gerald T. Keusch, M.D. (Co-Chair), is associate provost for global health at Boston University, and associate dean for global health at Boston University School of Public Health. Prior to this appointment, Dr. Keusch served as director of the Fogarty International Center at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and associate director for international research in the office of the NIH Director. A graduate of Columbia College and Harvard Medical School, he is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He has been involved in clinical medicine, teaching, and research for his entire career, most recently as professor of medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine and senior attending physician and chief of the Divi- sion of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases at the New England Medical Center in Boston, MA. His research has ranged from the molecular pathogenesis of tropical infectious diseases to field research in nutrition, immunology, host susceptibility, and the treatment of tropical infectious diseases and HIV/AIDS. He was a faculty associate at Harvard Institute for International Development in the Health Office. Dr. Keusch is the author of more than 300 original publications, reviews, and book chapters, and he is the editor of 8 scientific books. He is the recipient of the Squibb, Finland, and Bristol awards for research excellence from the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and has delivered numerous named lectures on topics of science and global health at leading institutions around the world. He is currently involved in international health research and policy with the NIH, the United Nations, and the World Health Organization (WHO). He has been a member of several Institute of Medicine (IOM) consensus com- 

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 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES mittees, and is currently a member of the Board on Global Health and the Forum on Microbial Threats. Marguerite Pappaioanou, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., Ph.D., Dip ACVPM (Co-Chair), is the executive director of the Association of American Veterinary Medi- cal Colleges (AAVMC) in Washington, DC. Prior to joining the AAVMC, Dr. Pappaioanou held a joint appointment as professor of infectious dis- ease epidemiology in the School of Public Health and College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Minnesota. She also held numerous positions at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most recently as acting deputy director in the Office of Global Health in 2004, and associ- ate director for science and policy from 1999 to 2004. She co-coordinated the CDC’s international response to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and avian flu outbreaks in 2003, and served as the point of contact at CDC for Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) activities in Afghanistan and Iraq. As chief of Surveillance and Evaluation—Special Projects, AIDS Program, and as assistant chief for science, she led studies on AIDS and HIV infection, and survey design for a national system of HIV surveillance in 39 U.S. cities. She received the Charles C. Shepard Science Award for coauthorship of the scientific paper Prevalence of HIV Infection in Childbearing Women in the United States. Dr. Pappaioanou has received numerous awards, including the U.S. Public Health Service Commendation and Outstanding Service Medals; Award of Recognition, Association of Teachers of Public Health and Preventive Medicine; and the Robert Dyar Labrador Memorial Lectureship, University of California, Davis, 2002. She is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and an honorary Diplomate of the American Veterinary Epidemiology Society for her contributions to progress in public health. She recently served on the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Committee on Methodological Improvements to the Department of Homeland Security’s Biological Agent Risk Analysis. Dr. Pappaioanou received her Ph.D. in comparative pathology and M.P.V.M. from the University of California, Davis, and her D.V.M. and B.Sc. from Michigan State University. Corrie Brown, D.V.M., Ph.D., is the Josiah Meigs Distinguished Teaching Professor at the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia. Her research interests include pathogenesis of infectious disease in food- producing animals through the use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. She is active in the fields of emerging diseases and interna- tional veterinary medicine and currently serves as coordinator of activities for the College of Veterinary Medicine. Prior to joining University of Georgia in 1996, she worked at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plum Island Foreign Animal Disease Center for 10 years, conducting pathogenesis

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 APPENDIX A and control studies on many foreign animal diseases. Her bench research interests at University of Georgia have been focused on poultry diseases, and she works closely with the USDA facility in Athens that is dedicated to foreign diseases of poultry. In educational research, she has several grants to help promote awareness of foreign animal diseases and global issues in veterinary curricula and beyond. Dr. Brown is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists. She also trained veterinarians in Afghanistan to perform animal autopsies to help prevent the spread of bird flu. She has published or presented more than 250 scientific papers and has testified to Congress on issues involving agroterrorism. Dr. Brown has served on many industrial and federal panels, and has been a technical consultant to numerous foreign governments on issues involving infectious diseases and animal health infrastructure. She has served on several NRC committees, including the Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases and the Committee on Genomics Databases for Bioterrorism Threat Agents: Striking a Balance for Information Sharing. Dr. Brown received her Ph.D. in veterinary pathology with a specialization in infectious diseases from the University of California, Davis, and her D.V.M. from the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. John S. Brownstein, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, and has joint appointments in the Children’s Hospital Boston Informatics Program at the Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology Division of Health Sciences and Technology and the Division of Emergency Medicine. Dr. Brownstein was trained as an epidemiologist at Yale University, where he received his Ph.D. His research is dedicated to statistical and informatics approaches aimed at improving public health sur- veillance and practice. This research has focused on a variety of infectious diseases, including malaria, dengue, HIV, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza. He is also leading the development of several novel disease surveillance systems, including HealthMap.org, an Internet-based global infectious disease intelligence system. Dr. Brownstein has advised the IOM, HHS, and the White House on real-time public health surveillance. He has used this experience in his role as a board member of the International Society for Disease Surveillance. He has authored more than 30 articles in the area of disease surveillance. This work has been reported on widely, including pieces in Science, Nature, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, CNN, National Public Radio, and the BBC. Peter Daszak, Ph.D., is the executive director of the Consortium for Con- servation Medicine, a partnership among two schools of public health (Johns Hopkins, Pittsburgh), a veterinary school (Tufts), a school of envi-

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 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES ronmental science (Wisconsin’s Sustainability and the Global Environment), a federal wildlife health institution (United States Geological Survey’s National Wildlife Health Center), and an international conservation non- governmental organization (Wildlife Trust). His research addresses the links among anthropogenic environmental change, wildlife diseases, public health, and conservation. He is especially involved in research on emerging diseases, in trying to understand their ecology and the factors that drive emergence. Dr. Daszak investigates anthropogenic environmental changes linked to disease emergence and how they influence host–parasite popula- tion dynamics. Current projects include studying the ecology of West Nile virus, Nipah virus (a disease that emerged from fruit bats to kill more than 100 humans in Malaysia recently), SARS, H5N1 avian influenza, and other diseases that cross the wildlife–human boundary. Dr. Daszak also works on wildlife emerging diseases that have conservation significance (e.g., amphibian chytridiomycosis, Partula snail microsporidiosis, testing hypothesized examples of extinction by infection). Dr. Daszak has a number of research projects investigating the role of trade in the spread of wildlife and human pathogens and the impact of this on public health and conserva- tion. He recently served on the NRC’s Committee on National Needs for Research in Veterinary Science. He is originally from Great Britain, where he earned a Ph.D. in parasitology and a B.Sc. in zoology. Cornelis de Haan graduated with a degree in animal science from Wageningen University in the Netherlands in 1966. From 1966 to 1967, he worked in dairy research and development in Ecuador and in small-holder agriculture in Peru. He then moved to Africa, where until 1983 he occupied the posts of senior scientist and later deputy director general (research) of the Inter- national Livestock Center for Africa in Addis Ababa. He joined The World Bank in Washington, DC, in 1983, initially as senior livestock specialist for West Africa and later for Eastern Europe and the Middle East. From 1992 until 2001, he occupied the post of senior advisor for livestock devel- opment, responsible for the livestock development policies of The World Bank. Mr. de Haan is now retired, but still works as consultant on animal agriculture for The World Bank. His main interests are institutional aspects of livestock development, livestock and the environment, food safety issues and livestock and poverty reduction. He is part of a joint World Bank- United Nations System Influenza Coordinator task force called Beyond HPAI (highly pathogenic avian influenza), which will recommend institu- tional and funding mechanisms for a more permanent control of pandemics and other zoonotic diseases. Christl Donnelly, Sc.D., M.Sc., is a professor of statistical epidemiology at Imperial College, London. Previously, she was head of the Statistics Unit

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 APPENDIX A at the University of Oxford Wellcome Trust Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology (1995–2000) and a lecturer in statistics at the University of Edinburgh (1992–1995). Her research focuses on the synthesis of methods combining sound statistical principles and insights from biomathematical models of disease transmission. She has considerable experience with SARS, bovine tuberculosis (TB), and avian influenza. Dr. Donnelly has been a member of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s Schistosomiasis Control Initiative Technical Committee since 2002. She was the deputy chairman of the Independent Scientific Group on Cattle TB from 1998 to 2007, and contributed to the Office of Science and Innovation’s project Foresight— Infectious Diseases: Preparing for the Future from 2004 to 2006. She was an advisor to the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee from 1996 to 2003, and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and Sheep BSE) Subgroup member from 1998 to 1999. Dr. Donnelly was also a member of the Foot and Mouth Disease Official Science Group and the Joint Royal Society/Academy of Medical Sciences Working Group on the Science of TSEs in 2001. She was awarded the Distinguished Alum Award by the Harvard School of Public Health’s Department of Biostatistics in 2005 and the Franco-British prize by the Académie des Sciences in Paris in 2002. Dr. Donnelly received her Sc.D. and M.Sc. in biostatistics from Harvard University and her B.A. in mathematics from Oberlin College. David P. Fidler, J.D., M.Phil., B.C.L., is the James Louis Calamaras Pro- fessor of Law at Indiana University School of Law and is director of the Indiana University Center on American and Global Security. Profes- sor Fidler is one of the world’s leading experts on international law and public health, with an emphasis on infectious diseases. His books in this area include International Law and Infectious Diseases (Clarendon Press, 1999), International Law and Public Health (Transnational Publishers, 2000), SARS, Governance, and the Globalization of Disease (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), and Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and the Rule of Law (Stanford University Press, 2008, with Lawrence O. Gostin). Professor Fidler has acted as an international legal consultant to WHO, the World Bank, CDC, the U.S. Department of Defense, and various nongovernmental organizations involved with global health or arms control issues. Kenneth H. Hill, Ph.D., is a Professor at the Department of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health. His research inter- ests have been in the development of demographic measurement methods (particularly for demographic outcomes that are hard to measure, such as child and adult mortality, unmet need for family planning, undocumented migration); the measurement of child mortality (with particular emphasis

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 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES on tracking national trends and linking them to other changes). They also include the exploration of links between demographic parameters and eco- nomic crisis; the impact of policy and programs on demographic change; the role of gender preferences on child health behaviors and fertility; the demography of sub-Saharan Africa; the role of development, particularly child mortality change, on fertility decline; the measurement of demo- graphic parameters for populations undergoing complex emergencies; and measurement of adult mortality in the developing world: Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Middle East. Dr. Hill has also served on several NRC commit- tees or panels, and has chaired both the Panel on the Population Dynamics of sub-Saharan Africa and the Working Group on Demographic Effects of Economic and Social Reversals. Ann Marie Kimball,1 M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.P., is professor of epidemiology and health services and an adjunct in medicine and biomedical and health informatics at the University of Washington. She also serves as the director of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Emerging Infections Networks and the director of the Amauata Global Informatics research and training program. Dr. Kimball has devoted her career to studying health issues and has worked in numerous positions in the United States and abroad. Her research interests are primarily in international health, trade, HIV/AIDS, emerging infections, maternal and child health, and health informatics. In 2006, she published Risky Trade: Infectious Disease in an Era of Global Trade (Ashgate). Previously, she served as a member of the IOM’s Forum on Emerging Infections, as a member of the Department of Health and Human Services’ Emerging and Reemerging Diseases Strategic Planning Task Force, as regional advisor for the Pan American Health Organization in HIV/ AIDS, and as the chair of the National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors in the United States. She has served as a U.S. delegate to the American Pacific Economic Council Health Working Group. Dr. Kimball received her M.D. and M.P.H. from the University of Washington, and her B.S. in biology and humanities from Stanford University. Ramanan Laxminarayan,2 Ph.D., M.P.H., is senior fellow at Resources for the Future in Washington, DC. His research examines the integration of epidemiological models of infectious disease transmission and acquisition of bacterial and parasite resistance into the economic analysis of public health problems. His interest in “resistance economics” is focused on improving the analytical framework to study problems such as bacterial resistance to antibiotics and pest resistance to genetically modified crops. His research 1 Appointed in September 2008. 2 Appointed in September 2008.

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 APPENDIX A activities relevant to this study focus on incentives for surveillance and reporting of infectious disease outbreaks. He has worked with WHO on evaluating malaria treatment policy in Africa, and has served on the IOM review panels for several reports, including Malaria Control: A Reconsid- eration of the Role of DDT and Assessment of the Role of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants. Dr. Laxminarayan received his undergraduate degree in engineering from the Birla Institute of Technology and Science in Pilani, India, and both his master’s in public health and doc- torate in economics from the University of Washington, Seattle. Terry F. McElwain, D.V.M., Ph.D., is the executive director of the Wash- ington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and director of the Animal Health Research Center in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Washing- ton State University. He is past president of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, and serves on the Board of Direc- tors of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians. Dr. McElwain has been a key architect in the creation and development of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network, and has been closely involved in the development of the new School for Global Animal Health at Washington State University. He interacts with CDC, and is also a member of the governor’s emergency preparedness task force in the state of Washington. He recently served on the NRC’s Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases. Dr. McElwain has a long, established research record in the field of veterinary infectious diseases, especially those of agricultural animals. He received his D.V.M. from the College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, and his Ph.D. from Washington State University. Mark Nichter, M.P.H., Ph.D., is Regents Professor of Anthropology at the University of Arizona, holding joint appointments in the Depart- ments of Family Medicine and Public Health. He has pioneered the use of ethnographic methods in the fields of medicine, ethnomedicine, and public health. Professor Nichter has conducted extensive research in developing countries as well as in the United States, and his research and writing has shaped the field of medical anthropology and addressed issues such as child survival, infectious and vector-borne disease, women’s health, pharmaceu- tical use and drug resistance, and emerging diseases. At the University of Arizona, he has built a doctoral program in medical anthropology, and has chaired the work of more than 30 Ph.D. students. He has also helped train health social scientists and medical and public health researchers in India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and the Philippines. He also played a pivotal role in developing an international clinical epidemiology network that operates in more than 41 countries. Professor Nichter has received some of the most

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 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES prestigious awards in his discipline, including the Radcliffe-Brown Award from the Royal Anthropological Society and the Margaret Mead Award from the American Anthropological Association. The Society for Medi- cal Anthropology awarded him the Virchow Award and most recently its Career Mentorship Award. Professor Nichter served as president for the Society of Medical Anthropology, and has most recently served as a mem- ber of the IOM Committee on the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by the American Public. Mo Salman, B.V.M.S., M.P.V.M., Ph.D., is professor of veterinary epi- demiology in the Animal Population Health Institute of the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University. He holds appointments in the Department of Clinical Science and Depart- ment of Environmental Health and Radiological Sciences. His educational background is in veterinary medicine, preventive veterinary medicine, and comparative pathology. He received his veterinary medical degree from the University of Baghdad, Iraq, and a Master’s in Preventive Veterinary Medicine and a Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis. He is a Diplomate in the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology. Dr. Salman is the author of more than 200 refereed papers in scientific journals and has participated in numerous conferences and national and international meetings in more than 25 years as a faculty member. He has served on the board of two sci- entific journals, Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and American Journal of Veterinary Research. He is the section editor for the epidemiol- ogy section of Animal Health Review and serves on several national and international professional and scientific committees in the animal health sectors. He was the chair of the U.S. Animal Health Association Commit- tee on Foreign and Emerging Diseases. Dr. Salman is engaged in research and outreach projects in more than 15 countries around the world. He participated in the peer review of the European Union scientific review for the geographical assessment for BSE and was elected to be on the European Food Safety Agency’s Panel for Animal Health and Welfare. He is chair of the Continuing Education Committee of the Association for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. He is the recipient of the 2007 American Veterinary Medical Association’s XII International Veterinary Congress Prize for his contributions to international understanding of veterinary medicine. Dr. Salman’s research interests are in the methodology of surveillance and survey for animal diseases, with emphasis on infectious diseases. Oyewale Tomori, D.V.M., Ph.D., is vice chancellor of Redeemer’s Univer- sity in Nigeria. Dr. Tomori is also a Fellow of the College of Veterinary

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 APPENDIX A Surgeons of Nigeria. Dr. Tomori worked as a regional virologist in Africa with WHO for many years and is a virologist of international repute. Within the past 30 years, he has carried out meaningful research studies on a wide range of human viruses and zoonotic and veterinary viruses, which are of immense public health importance in Nigeria and in Africa as a whole. The studies involve epidemiological and serological surveys for viral infections, the control of viral epidemics, the development of diag- nostic tests for viral infections, the immunology of viruses, the pathology and pathogenesis of viruses, the development of viral vaccines, and char- acterization and ecology of viruses. Prominent among the viruses he has studied are the yellow fever virus, the Lassa fever virus, the poliomyelitis virus, the measles virus, the Ebola virus and a hitherto unknown virus, the Orungo virus, which he elucidated the properties of and registered with the International Committee of Virus Taxonomy. This discovery is considered an outstanding contribution to the discipline of virology. Professor Tomori is recognized as one of Africa’s front-line Lassa fever researchers. He has developed a unique diagnostic virus neutralization test for the Lassa fever. His major contribution on yellow fever is the development of a technique for forecasting impending outbreaks of the disease, which has helped to put the country in a state of preparedness to combat the epidemic. Profes- sor Tomori received his D.V.M. from the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, and his Ph.D. in virology of the University of Ibadan. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom and a Fellow of the Academy of Science in Nigeria. Kevin D. Walker, M.S., Ph.D., is a professor with the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center at Michigan State University and interna- tional advisor with the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). His current focus is the design and implementation of strategic initiatives where animal health, public health, and the environment intersect at the national and global levels. Dr. Walker’s areas of expertise include animal diseases, economics, food safety, international trade standards and agreements, leadership, and policy. He previously spent 8 years as the direc- tor of agricultural health and food safety within the Inter-American Insti- tute for Cooperation in Agriculture, based in Costa Rica, where he worked with national governments in the 34 countries in the Americas to enhance public infrastructure, leadership development, emerging issues assessments, and implementation of international trade standards and agreements. Prior to working overseas, he was the director of the Centers for Emerging Issues within APHIS/Veterinary Services. During this time the Centers carried out a variety of national risk analyses for emerging issues, including BSE, E. coli O157:H7, avian influenza, and tuberculosis. Dr. Walker has collaborated and worked with a large number of organizations, including the World

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00 GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES Trade Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, the International Plant Protection Convention, and the Codex Alimentarius. He recently served on the NRC Committee on Assessing the Nation’s Framework for Addressing Animal Diseases. He is also a Fellow with the Kellogg Foundation. Mark Woolhouse, Ph.D., is a professor of infectious disease epidemiology at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. He held research posts at the Uni- versity of Zimbabwe, Imperial College London Medical Research Council Training Fellowship), the University of Oxford (Beit Memorial Fellowship and Royal Society University Research Fellowship), and now Edinburgh (initially in the School of Veterinary Studies). He has worked on a variety of infectious disease systems: human schistosomiasis, involving extensive field work in rural Zimbabwe; verocytotoxigenic E. coli in cattle in rural Scotland; the epidemiology and transmission biology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock; trypanosomiasis in humans, cattle, and tsetse in East and Southern Africa; and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in cattle (BSE) and sheep (scrapie). He has published more than 150 sci- entific papers on these and other topics. He advises the United Kingdom government on both animal and human health, and his work during the UK 2001 FMD epidemic led to an Officer of the British Empire award in 2002. Dr. Woolhouse is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He trained as a population biologist with a B.A. from Oxford University, an M.Sc. from the University of York, and a Ph.D. from Queen’s University before turning to epidemiology.