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FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING

Reports on Leading-Edge Engineering from the 2008 Symposium

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: This publication has been reviewed according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. Publication of signed work signi- fies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the NAE. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of the authors and do not purport to represent the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. Funding for the activity that led to this publication was provided by Sandia National Laboratories, The Grainger Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense–DDR&E Research, National Science Foundation, Microsoft Research, Sun Microsystems, IBM, Intel, Alcatel-Lucent/ Bell Laboratories, Corning, Inc., Cummins, Inc., and Dr. John A. Armstrong. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-03-09-12821-6 International Standard Book Number-10: 03-09-12821-8 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright © 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibil- ity given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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ORGANIZING COMMITTEE JULIA M. PHILLIPS (Chair), Director, Physical, Chemical, and Nano Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories BARRETT S. CALDWELL, Associate Professor, School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University JIA CHEN, Research Staff Member, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center J. SCOTT GOLDSTEIN, Vice President of Technology and Group Chief Scientist, Science Applications International Corporation WILLIAM J. GRIECO, Vice President, Engineering Programs, PetroAlgae GREGORy A. HEBNER, Manager, Laser, Optics, Remote Sensing, Plasma Physics, and Complex Systems Department, Sandia National Laboratories EFROSINI kOkkOLI, Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota kIM VICENTE, Professor and Director, Cognitive Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto VICTOR zHIRNOV, Research Scientist, Semiconductor Research Corporation Staff JANET R. HUNzIkER, Senior Program Officer VIRGINIA R. BACON, Program Associate iv

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Preface In 1995, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) initiated the Frontiers of Engineering Program, which brings together about 100 young engineering leaders at annual symposia to learn about cutting-edge research and technical work in a variety of engineering fields. The 2008 U.S. Frontiers of Engineering Symposium was hosted by Sandia National Laboratories at the University of New Mexico, September 18-20. Speakers were asked to prepare extended summaries of their presentations, which are reprinted in this volume. The intent of this book is to convey the excitement of this unique meeting and to highlight cutting-edge developments in engineering research and technical work. GOALS OF THE FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING PROGRAM The practice of engineering is continually changing. Engineers today must be able not only to thrive in an environment of rapid technological change and globalization, but also to work on interdisciplinary teams. Cutting-edge research is being done at the intersections of engineering disciplines, and successful research- ers and practitioners must be aware of developments and challenges in areas that may not be familiar to them. Every year at the U.S. Frontiers of Engineering Symposium, 100 of this country’s best and brightest engineers, ages 30 to 45, have an opportunity to learn from their peers about pioneering work being done in many areas of engineer- ing. The symposium gives early career engineers working in academia, industry, v

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vi PREFACE and government in many different engineering disciplines an opportunity to make contacts with and learn from individuals they would not meet in the usual round of professional meetings. This networking may lead to collaborative work and facilitate the transfer of new techniques and approaches. It is hoped that the exchange of information on current developments in many fields of engineering will lead to insights that may be applicable in specific disciplines and thereby build U.S. innovative capacity. The number of participants at each meeting is limited to 100 to maximize opportunities for interactions and exchanges among the attendees, who are chosen through a competitive nomination and selection process. The topics and speakers for each meeting are selected by an organizing committee of engineers in the same 30- to 45-year-old cohort as the participants. Different topics are covered each year, and, with a few exceptions, different individuals participate. Speakers describe the challenges they face and communicate the excitement of their work to a technically sophisticated audience with backgrounds in many disciplines. Each speaker provides a brief overview of his/her field of inquiry; defines the frontiers of that field; describes experiments, prototypes, and design studies that have been completed or are in progress, as well as new tools and methodologies, and limitations and controversies; and then summarizes the long- term significance of his/her work. THE 2008 SYMPOSIUM The four general topics covered at the 2008 meeting were: drug delivery sys- tems, emerging nanoelectronic devices, cognitive engineering, and countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Drug Delivery Systems session described how advances in materials, particularly polymer systems, have enabled more careful engineering of delivery systems. For example, engineered particles or devices provide sustained release of therapies over an extended time period, eliminating daily dosing, and micro- and nano-engineered systems target delivery of a therapy to a particular physiological system, minimizing systemic side effects. Talks in the session provided an overview of drug delivery methodologies and highlighted several key technologies for targeting and controlling the release of bioactive materials such as targeted polymeric nanotherapies, polymer technology for gene delivery, and traceable drug delivery with quantum dots. The Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices session focused on novel nanoscale materials and devices, circuit concepts, and sensor functionalities that can be harnessed to develop new technologies for information processing. Present- ers discussed a range of ideas for post-CMOS technologies, such as molecular electronics, carbon nanotube devices, and spin devices that when integrated with appropriate nanoarchitectures create alternative electronic devices. Cognitive Engineering, according to the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, focuses on improving systems design and training to support human

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vii PREFACE cognitive and decision making skills, particularly in applied, naturalistic set- tings. The four presentations in this session provided an overview of the field and described improvements in systems engineering to maximize human performance and reduce error in the domains of driving, power plant operations, and health care delivery. The symposium concluded with talks on understanding and countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Two of the talks covered national and international policy issues that frame the discussion, and a third described the strategy of capability-based nuclear deterrence, which relies on a smaller number of deployed weapons and a robust and agile infrastructure enabled by science and engineering. In addition to the plenary sessions, the participants had many opportunities to engage in informal interactions. On the first afternoon of the meeting, participants broke into small groups to share ideas on important advances they hope to make in the next 10 years and what discoveries would be helpful in reaching their goals. On the second afternoon, there were tours of the Center for High-Technology Materials at the University of New Mexico and two facilities at Sandia National Laboratories: the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (aka the Solar Tower), and the z Machine, the world’s largest X-ray generator. Every year, a distinguished engineer addresses the participants at dinner on the first evening of the symposium. The speaker this year was Alton D. Romig, Jr., executive vice president and deputy laboratories director for Integrated Technolo- gies and Systems and interim chief operating officer at Sandia National Labora- tories. His talk on energy policy and the role of technology in national security covered a range of topics, including engineering advances that provide energy security and the integration and interdependency of world economics and energy markets. The text of Dr. Romig’s remarks is included in this volume. NAE is deeply grateful to the following organizations for their support of the 2008 U.S. Frontiers of Engineering Symposium: Sandia National Laboratories, University of New Mexico School of Engineering, The Grainger Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense-DDR&E Research, National Science Foundation, Micro- soft Research, Sun Microsystems, IBM, Intel, Alcatel-Lucent/Bell Labs, Corning, Inc., Cummins Inc., and Dr. John A. Armstrong. NAE would also like to thank the members of the Symposium Organizing Committee (p. iv), chaired by Dr. Julia M. Phillips, for planning and organizing the event.

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Contents DRUG DELIvERY SYSTEMS Introduction 3 William J. Grieco and Efrosini Kokkoli Recent Developments in Needle-Free Drug Delivery 5 Samir Mitragotri Targeted Polymeric Nanotherapeutics 17 Jeff Hrkach Polymer Technology for Gene Therapy 25 Daniel W. Pack Traceable Drug Delivery: Lighting the Way with Qdots 33 Xiaohu Gao EMERGING NANOELECTRONIC DEvICES Introduction 43 Jia Chen and Victor Zhirnov ix

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x CONTENTS The Quest for the Next Information-Processing Technology 45 Jeffrey J. Welser Molecular and Polymer Nanodevices 53 Nikolai Zhitenev Roll Printing of Crystalline Nanowires for Integrated Electronic and Sensor Arrays 59 Ali Javey, Zhiyong Fan, Johnny C. Ho, and Roie Yerushalmi The Role of DNA in Nanoarchitectonics 71 Mihrimah Ozkan and Cengiz S. Ozkan COGNITIvE ENGINEERING Introduction 85 Barrett S. Caldwell Cognitive Engineering: It’s Not What you Think 87 Stephanie Guerlain Driving Attention: Cognitive Engineering in Designing Attractions and Distractions 93 John D. Lee Human Reliability Analysis in Cognitive Engineering and System Design 103 Ronald Laurids Boring Cognitive Engineering Applications in Health Care 111 Ann M. Bisantz UNDERSTANDING AND COUNTERING THE PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION Introduction 125 J. Scott Goldstein and Gregory A. Hebner U.S. National Security in New Times 127 Steven D. Nixon Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: Translating Strategic Guidance into Actionable Solutions 133 Charles L. Beames

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xi CONTENTS Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century: The Role of Science and Engineering 141 Joseph C. Martz and Jonathan S. Ventura DINNER SPEECH Energy Policy and the Role of Technology in National Security 149 A.D. Romig, Jr. with Arnold B. Baker APPENDIXES Contributors 161 Program 169 Participants 173

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