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appendix C About the Authors Gerald F. Gebhart (Chair), PhD, is Professor and Director of the Center for Pain Research at the University of Pittsburgh. He has more than three decades of experience in pain research that has focused on endogenous systems of pain control and mechanisms of hypersensitivity, most recently visceral hypersensitivity. Dr. Gebhart has developed widely used animal models for the study of mechanisms of postoperative, incisional, and vis- ceral pain (stomach and colon). He has served on the ILAR Council, as editor of the ILAR Journal, and on the ILAR committees that produced Rec- ognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals (1992) and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996). He is a Past President of the American Pain Society, current Editor in Chief of the Society’s Journal of Pain, and President (2008-2011) of the International Association for the Study of Pain. Allan I. Basbaum, PhD, FRS, IOM, is Professor and Chair of the Depart- ment of Anatomy and a member of the W.M. Keck Foundation Center for Integrative Neurosciences at the University of California San Francisco. He has studied the peripheral and central nervous system mechanisms that underlie the generation and control of pain for over four decades. A major component of his research involves behavioral analysis of animals, including responses to peripheral stimulation in the setting of tissue or nerve injury. His laboratory uses a variety of injury conditions that model clinical pain states, so that novel therapeutic targets for the control of pain may be identified. Assessment and measurement of pain behavior are thus critical 16

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168 RECOGNITION AND ALLEVIATION OF PAIN IN LABORATORY ANIMALS elements of the work performed in his laboratory. He is Editor in Chief of Pain, the journal of the International Association for the Study of Pain. Stephanie J. Bird, PhD, is a laboratory-trained neuroscientist whose current research interests focus on ethical issues associated with scientific research, especially in the area of neuroscience. She is co-Editor in Chief of the jour- nal Science and Engineering Ethics. As Special Assistant to the Provost and Vice President for Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1992 to 2003, Dr. Bird worked on the development of educational programs that addressed ethical issues in science and engineering, research practice, and professional responsibilities. Dr. Bird is an active member of the Society for Neuroscience and former Chair of its Social Issues Commit- tee (2003-2005). She is also an active member and Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and has been Secretary of its Societal Impacts of Science and Engineering Section since 1995. Dr. Bird has been a member of the Tufts University Animal Care and Use Com- mittee since 1991. Paul Flecknell, MA, VetMB, PhD, is Professor at the Medical School of Newcastle University. He is a Diplomate of the European Colleges of Vet- erinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia and Laboratory Animal Medicine and a Diplomate of the UK Royal College of Veterinary Medicine in Laboratory Animal Science. He is also a veterinarian and has a PhD in physiology. He has done research in the area of animal anesthesia and analgesia for over 25 years and has published extensively in these fields. He also serves as the clinical veterinarian at a large multispecies research animal unit and is actively involved in implementing pain assessment and alleviation tech- niques in a range of species. He teaches pain management to a number of different groups on a regular basis. Lyndon J. Goodly, DVM, MS, is Associate Vice Chancellor for Research at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. As a Diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine with over 16 years of experience in the field, he has worked with a vast array of animals including amphibians, cats, dogs, fish, nonhuman primates, rodents, swine, and other agricultural species. He has served as an ad hoc member of two NIH Special Emphasis Panels and as a voting member of a number of institutional animal care and use committees. Alicia Z. Karas, MS, DVM, is Assistant Professor in Tufts University’s Cum- mings School of Veterinary Medicine. She teaches anesthesiology and pain medicine and works extensively with researchers, IACUCs, and laboratory animal organizations to promote and lecture on best practices of current

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16 APPENDIX C veterinary pain medicine. She was a member of the school’s IACUC and has been its Vice Chair since 1999. She is also a member of the Board of Directors of the International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management. Her research areas include methods of assessment and treatment of pain in mice, rabbits, dogs, and goats, improved methods of handling labora- tory animals, and humane endpoints. She is on the editorial board for Lab Animal magazine and is an editor and author of the 2008 version of the ACLAM text Anesthesia and Analgesia of Laboratory Animals. Stephen T. Kelley, DVM, MS, is Clinical Associate Professor at the Uni- versity of Washington and a retired Supervisory Veterinarian and Head of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery at the Washington National Primate Research Center. As a Diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, he has over 33 years of experience working with nonhu- man primates (both Old and New World species) in clinical and research settings. Additionally, Dr. Kelley has served as a member of the Council on Accreditation of the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Labo- ratory Animal Care (AAALAC) International since 1998. Jane Lacher, DVM, is Clinical Veterinarian for the Dow Chemical Company Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting Laboratory, where she is responsible for the care and welfare of a variety of animal species in studies of chronic oncogenicity, metabolism, immunotoxicology, neuro- toxicology, and respiratory, acute, genetic, reproductive, and developmental toxicology. Dr. Lacher dialogues with and advises coworkers on humane practices and endpoints involving animals in toxicology studies and is a member of the Dow Chemical Company Animal Welfare Opportunity Team responsible for ensuring a corporate commitment to animal welfare, both within the corporation and for studies at contract research organizations. Georgia Mason, PhD, is Canada Research Chair in Animal Welfare and a member of the IACUC at the University of Guelph. Her main research inter- est is the chronic effects of standard housing on brain, behavior, and wel- fare. She is particularly interested in the use of behavioral measures (e.g., preference/avoidance; abnormal activities such as stereotypy) in objective welfare assessment. Her laboratory animal welfare projects include stud- ies on the effects of early enrichment on later welfare in mice; of different enrichments on alopecia, aggression, and corticosteroid excretion in rhesus macaques; of different cage-cleaning regimes on rat and mouse welfare (in collaboration with Harlan UK); and of weaning age on mouse anxiety. She also studies the use of chromodacryorrhea and corticosterone from single micturations in assessing acute stress in the rat.

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10 RECOGNITION AND ALLEVIATION OF PAIN IN LABORATORY ANIMALS Lynne U. Sneddon, PhD, is Lecturer at the University of Liverpool. Her current research program examines pain, fear, and stress in fish using fMRI and other techniques in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genomics, whole animal physiology, and behavior. She first identified nociceptors in fish and embarked on projects aimed at understanding the importance of the nociceptive experience to fish and how to alleviate their pain by examining a number of analgesics. She was part of the working group of the Council of Europe’s Farmed Fish Welfare guidelines endorsed in June 2006. She is a member of the European Food Safety Association’s working group on farmed fish welfare and of the Association for the Study of Animal Behavior (ASAB) ethical committee. She has served as an advisor to numerous soci- eties (including the Canadian Care Council) on their guidelines regarding fish. Sulpicio G. Soriano, MD, MSEd, FAAP, is the Children’s Hospital Boston Endowed Chair in Pediatric Neuroanesthesia and Associate Professor of Anesthesia at Harvard Medical School. He has been involved in anesthesia- related investigations in laboratory animals for 20 years and is recently studying the effects of anesthetic drugs on inflammation and the developing central nervous system. In his clinical role as a pediatric neuroanesthesiolo- gist, he advocates the humane use of anesthesia and analgesia in animal research. Consultant Heidi L. Shafford, DVM, PhD, is a Consultant in anesthesia and pain man- agement for research facilities and veterinary teams. She is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists. For over 10 years Dr. Shafford has been involved in studying the physiologic and behavioral effects of pain and analgesics in a variety of laboratory animal models. Con- currently, she assisted IACUCs, investigators, and veterinary staff to establish protocols for preventing and treating pain. Dr. Shafford owns and operates Veterinary Anesthesia Specialists, LLC, in Portland, Oregon. She regularly provides training related to anesthetic and analgesic practices for industry, academic, private, and professional organizations nationwide.