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Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Tasks Ahead
of uncertainties and variabilities inherent in health risk assessment. He received his PhD from the University of Cambridge, England, in high-energy physics.
PAUL FOSTER is the acting chief of the Toxicology Operations Branch and deputy director of the National Toxicology Program’s Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in Research Triangle Park, NC. His recent research has focused on the mechanisms of environmental chemical and drug effects on reproductive development. Before joining NIEHS in 2002, he was the director of the research program in endocrine, reproductive, and developmental toxicology at the CIIT Centers for Health Research. Dr. Foster’s research interests include the potential human health effects of environmental endocrine disruptors (particularly antiandrogens), mechanisms of testicular toxicity, early testicular Leydig cell dysfunction induced by chemicals as a prelude to hyperplasia and tumors, and the toxicokinetic and dynamic characteristics of the induction of reproductive and developmental toxicity. He also has a broad interest in risk-assessment issues in those subjects. Dr. Foster has served on numerous national and international advisory committees dealing with reproductive toxicology and endocrine disruption, including the Federal Advisory Committee on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. He has served on National Research Council committees, including the Subcommittee on Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. He earned a PhD in biochemistry and toxicology at Brunel University, United Kingdom.
MARY FOX is assistant professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Her research is focused on developing cumulative risk assessment to inform public-health decision-making. Dr. Fox has applied cumulative-risk methods in numerous community health assessments. Her current research is directed at national-level decision-making and includes the relationship between exposure to a mixture of nephrotoxic metals and renal function and model uncertainty and the potential for error in cumulative exposure assessments for pesticides as mandated by the Food Quality Protection Act. Dr. Fox earned her MPH from the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry and her PhD from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
KEVIN GAIDO is senior investigator with the Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences. His research specialty is receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. Dr. Gaido’s current interests focus on chemical interactions with steroid-hormone receptors and the resulting cellular and molecular responses. Dr. Gaido earned his PhD in pharmacology and toxicology from the West Virginia University Medical Center.
MAIDA GALVEZ is an assistant professor in the Department of Community and Preventive Medicine and the Department of Pediatrics at the Mount Sinai