Swan, S.H., E.P. Elkin, and L. Fenster. 2000. The question of declining sperm density revisited: An analysis of 101 studies published 1934-1996. Environ. Health Perspect. 108(10):961-966.

Swan, S.H., K.M. Main, F. Liu, S.L. Stewart, R.L. Kruse, A.M. Calafat, C.S. Mao, J.B. Redmon, C.L. Ternand, S. Sullivan, and J.L. Teague. 2005. Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 113(8):1056-1061.

Takashima, K., Y. Ito, F.J. Gonzalez, and T. Nakajima. 2008. Different mechanisms of DEHP-induced hepatocellular adenoma tumorigenesis in wild-type and Ppar- alpha-null mice. J. Occup. Health 50(2):169-180.

Tilmann, C., and B. Capel. 2002. Cellular and molecular pathways regulating mammalian sex determination. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 57:1-18.

Turner, K.J., B.S. McIntyre, S.L. Phillips, N.J. Barlow, C.J. Bowman, and P.M. Foster. 2003. Altered gene expression during rat Wolffian duct development in response to in utero exposure to the antiandrogen linuron. Toxicol. Sci. 74(1):114-128.

Tyl, R.W., C.B. Myers, M.C. Marr, P.A. Fail, J.C. Seely, D.R. Brine, R.A. Barter, and J.H. Butala. 2004. Reproductive toxicity evaluation of dietary butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) in rats. Reprod. Toxicol. 18(2):241-264.

Vinggaard, A.M., S. Christiansen, P. Laier, M.E. Poulsen, V. Breinholt, K. Jarfelt, H. Jacobsen, M. Dalgaard, C. Nellemann, and U. Hass. 2005. Perinatal exposure to the fungicide prochloraz feminizes the male rat offspring. Toxicol. Sci. 85(2):886-897.

Voss, C., H. Zerban, P. Bannasch, and M.R. Berger. 2005. Lifelong exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate induces tumors in liver and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology 206(3):359-371.

Welsh, M., P.T.K. Saunders, M. Fisken, H.M. Scott, G.R. Hutchison, L.B. Smith, and R.M. Sharpe. 2008. Identification in rats of a programming window for reproductive tract masculinization, disruption of which leads to hypospadias and cryptorchidism. Clin. Invest. 118(4):1479-1490.

Wilson, V.S., C. Lambright, J. Furr, J. Ostby, C. Wood, G. Held, and L.E. Gray. 2004. Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular lesions are associated with reduced insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis. Toxicol. Lett. 146(3):207-215.

Wine, R.N., L.H. Li, L.H. Barnes, D.K. Gulati, and R.E. Chapin. 1997. Reproductive toxicity of di-n-butylphthalate in a continuous breeding protocol in Sprague-Dawley rats. Environ. Health Perspect. 105(1):102-107.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement