other organizations). Review of the formaldehyde SMACs also identified an opportunity for refinement with respect to the approach taken in developing acceptable concentrations (ACs) for the critical end points.

TABLE 12-1 Occupational Exposure Limits and Other Established Limits for Formaldehyde

Organization, Standard

Limit, ppm

Basis

References

ACGIH

 

 

 

ceiling

0.3

Protective of sensory irritation

ACGIH 1991

OSHA PEL

 

 

 

TWA

0.75

Protective of sensory irritation, other adverse respiratory effects

29 CFR § 1910.1048 [2008]

STEL

2

Protective of sensory irritation, other adverse respiratory effects

 

NIOSH

 

 

 

REL (TWA)

0.016

Based on lowest reliable analytical detection limit, based on NIOSH consideration as a carcinogen

NIOSH 2005

STEL

0.1

Protective against sensory irritation

 

NIOSH

 

 

 

IDLH

20

Respiratory tract damage, severe irritation

NIOSH 1996

ATSDR

 

 

 

Acute MRL

0.4

Protective of sensory irritation. Based on observations from Pazdrak et al. (1993)

ATSDR 1999

Intermediate (15-365 d) MRL

0.03

Degenerative effects on nasal epithelium. Based on work of Rusch et al. (1983).

 

NRC

 

 

 

EEGL, 1 h

2 ppm

Weight-of-evidence evaluation of sensory irritation

NRC 2007

CEGL, 24 h

1 ppm

CEGL, 90 d

0.3 ppm

NAC

 

 

 

AEGL-1

0.9 ppm (all time frames)

Weight-of-evidence evaluation of sensory irritation

NAC 2004

Abbreviations: ACGIH, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; AEGL-1, acute exposure guideline level (nondisabling); ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; CEGL, continuous exposure guidance level; EEGL, emergency exposure guidance level; IDLH, immediately dangerous to life and health; MRL, minimal risk level; NAC, National Advisory Council; NIOSH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; NRC, National Research Council; OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration; PEL, permissible exposure limit; REL, recommended exposure limit; STEL, short-term exposure limit; TWA, time-weighted average.



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