Ruddick, J.A. 1972. Toxicology, metabolism, and biochemistry of 1, 2-propanediol. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 21(1):102-111.

Sasaki, M., K. Sugimura, M.A. Yoshida, and S. Abe. 1980. Cytogenetic effects of 60 chemicals on cultured human and Chinese hamster cells. Kromosomo II. 20:574-584.

Suber, R.L., R. Deskin, I. Nikiforov, X. Fouillet, C.R. Coggins. 1989. Subchronic nose-only inhalation study of propylene glycol in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 27(9):573-583.

Swenberg, J.A., G.L. Petzold, and P.R. Harbach. 1976. In vitro DNA damage/alkaline elution assay for predicting carcinogenic potential. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 72(2):732-738.

Ten Berge, W.F., A. Zwart, and L.M. Appelman. 1986. Concentration-time mortality response relationship of irritant and systematically acting vapours and gases. J. Hazard. Mater. 13(3):301-309.

Wieslander, G., D. Norbeck, and T. Lindgren. 2001. Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: Acute ocular and respiratory effects. Occup. Environ. Med. 58(10):649-655.

Wilson, K.C., C. Reardon, A.C. Theodore, and H.W. Farber. 2005. Propylene glycol toxicity: A severe iatrogenic illness in ICU patients receiving IV benzodiazepines: A case series and prospective, observational pilot study. Chest 128(3):1674-1681.

Yaucher, N.E., J.T. Fish, H.W. Smith, and J.A. Wells. 2003. Propylene glycol-associated renal toxicity from lorazepam infusion. Pharmacotherapy 23(9):1094-1099.

Zar, T., C. Graeber, and M.A. Perazella. 2007. Recognition, treatment, and prevention of propylene glycol toxicity. Semin. Dial 20(3):217-219.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement