CATALYSIS FOR ENERGY

Fundamental Science and Long-Term Impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences Catalysis Science Program

Committee on the Review of the Basic Energy Sciences Catalysis Science Program

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Committee on the Review of the Basic Energy Sciences Catalysis Science Program Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu i

OCR for page R1
NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE- AM01-04PI4503 (Task Order DE-AT01-07ER15924.00). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-12856-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-12856-0 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624- 6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Cover: Design by Van Ngyuen; TOP IMAGE: Getty Images—petroleum- refining for energy and chemicals relies heavily on catalysis. BOTTOM IMAGE: Scanning electron micrograph of manganese-oxide molecular sieves— manganese oxides are used extensively in chemical processes for ion-exchange, separation, catalysis, and energy storage in secondary batteries. Courtesy of Steven L. Suib, University of Connecticut Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America ii

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org iii

OCR for page R1
iv

OCR for page R1
COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF THE BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES CATALYSIS SCIENCE PROGRAM NANCY B. JACKSON (Co-chair), Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM JENS K. NØRSKOV (Co-chair), Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark MARK A. BARTEAU, University of Delaware, Newark MARK J. CARDILLO, Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, New York MARCETTA Y. DARENSBOURG, Texas A&M University, College Station ANNE M. GAFFNEY, Lummus Technology, Bloomfield, NJ VERNON C. GIBSON, Imperial College, London, England SOSSINA M. HAILE, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena MASATAKE HARUTA, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan NENAD M. MARKOVIC, Argonne National Laboratory, IL THOMAS A. MOORE, Arizona State University, Tempe BRENDAN D. MURRAY, Shell Global Solutions, Houston, TX JAMES C. STEVENS, Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX BARRY M. TROST, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA Staff DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology ANDREW C. CROWTHER, Postdoctoral Research Associate NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer KELA L. MASTERS, Program Associate (through October 2008) MICHAEL MOLONEY, Senior Program Officer, National Materials Advisory Board ERICKA M. MCGOWAN, Associate Program Officer JESSICA L. PULLEN, Administrative Assistant SHEENA F. SIDDIQUI, Research Assistant LYNELLE C. VIDALE, Program Assistant v

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY F. FLEMING CRIM (Co-chair), University of Wisconsin, Madison GARY S. CALABRESE (Co-chair), Corning, Inc., NY BENJAMIN ANDERSON, Eli Lilly K.K., Kobe, Japan PABLO G. DEBENEDETTI, Princeton University, NJ RYAN R. DIRKX, Arkema, Inc., King of Prussia, PA MARY GALVIN-DONOGHUE, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA PAULA T. HAMMOND, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge CAROL J. HENRY, Advisor and Consultant in Public Health and Environment, Bethesda, MD RIGOBERTO HERNANDEZ, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc, Billerica, MA MARTHA A. KREBS, California Energy Commission, Sacramento CHARLES T. KRESGE, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI SCOTT J. MILLER, Yale University, New Haven, CT DONALD PROSNITZ, RAND Corporation, Walnut Creek, CA MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL ERIK J. SORENSEN, Princeton University, NJ WILLIAM C. TROGLER, University of California, San Diego, San Diego THOMAS H. UPTON, ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Baytown, TX National Research Council Staff DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director ANDREW C. CROWTHER, Postdoctoral Research Associate KATHRYN J. HUGHES, Program Officer TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer KELA L. MASTERS, Program Associate (through October 2008) ERICKA M. MCGOWAN, Associate Program Officer JESSICA L. PULLEN, Administrative Assistant SHEENA F. SIDDIQUI, Research Assistant LYNELLE C. VIDALE, Program Assistant vi

OCR for page R1
Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their review of this report: Dr. Frances Arnold, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Dr. Andreja Bakac, Ames Lab/Iowa State University, Ames Dr. Avelino Corma, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica, Valencia, Spain Dr. Frank DiSalvo, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Dr. Cynthia Friend, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA Dr. Carol Handwerker, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Dr. Scott Miller, Yale University, New Haven, CT Dr. C. Bradley Moore, University of California, Berkeley Dr. Hans Niemantsverdriet, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Netherlands Dr. Guido Pez, Air Products, Allentown, PA Dr. Stuart Soled, ExxonMobil, Annandale, NJ Dr. Joseph Zoeller, Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. Marye Anne Fox, University of California, San Diego and Dr. Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado, Boulder. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. vii

OCR for page R1
Contents viii

OCR for page R1
Contents Summary 1 1. Introduction 13 Catalysis and Chemical Transformations, 13 Catalysis and Energy, 15 Catalysis and the Department of Energy Mission, 16 Catalysis and Basic Research Funding, 17 Summary, 19 2. Overview of the Catalysis Science Program 21 History, 21 Budget, 22 Current Status, 24 Summary, 29 3. Overview of the Catalysis Science Program Portfolio 31 Research Grants, 32 Principal Investigators, 34 Conclusions, 41 4. Key Influences on the Development of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Catalysis Science Program Portfolio 43 Workshops and Professional Meetings, 43 Research Solicitations, 47 Contractor Meetings, 48 Office of Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, 51 Conclusions, 53 5. Analysis of Catalysis Science Program Portfolio 55 Metrics for Evaluating the Catalysis Science Program Portfolio, 55 Heterogeneous Catalysis, 56 Homogeneous Catalysis, 74 Summary, 88 6. Findings and Recommendations 89 Findings, 89 Recommendations, 93 ix

OCR for page R1
Appendixes A Statement of Task 95 B Guest Speaker and Committee Member Biographic Information 97 C Guest Speakers 109 D Industry Questionnaire Respondents 111 E 2005 Committee of Visitors Review Excerpt 113 F Catalysis Science Program Principal Investigators 117 x