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strengthening high sChool Chemistry eduCAtion through teACher outreACh progrAms A W orkshop summAry to the ChemiCAl sCienCes roundtAble Steve Olson, Rapporteur Chemical Sciences Roundtable Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies

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The NaTioNal academies Press 500 Fifth street, N.W. Washington, dc 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-FG02-07ER15872, the National Institutes of Health under Grant N01-OD-4-2139 (Task Order 25), the National Science Foundation under Grant CHE-0621582, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under award number FA9550-08-1-0472. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-12859-9 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-12859-5 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal govern - ment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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chemical scieNces roUNdTaBle Co-Chairs Charles P. Casey, University of Wisconsin, Madison sharon haynie, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware members PatriCia a. Baisden, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California Mark a. Barteau, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware MiChael r. BerMan, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, Virginia aPurBa BhattaCharya, Texas A&M, Kingsville, Texas louis Brus, Columbia, New York Paul F. Bryan, Biofuels Technology Chevron Technology Ventures LLC, Richmond, California Mark Cardillo,* Camille & Henry Dreyfus Foundation, New York WilliaM F. Carroll Jr.,* Occidental Chemical Corporation, Dallas, Texas Marvin h. Caruthers, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado John C. Chen, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania luis eChegoyen, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia BarBara J. Finlayson-Pitts, University of California, Irvine, California gary J. Foley, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina teresa FryBerger, NASA Earth Sciences Division, Washington, District of Columbia alex harris,* Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York luis e. Martinez, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter Florida John J. MCgrath, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia Paul F. MCkenzie, Centocor R&D, Radnor, New Jersey douglas ray, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington MiChael e. rogers, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland eriC rolFing, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, District of Columbia JaMes M. solyst, ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, Virginia levi thoMPson, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor National research council staff dorothy zolandz, Director andreW CroWther, Postdoctoral Fellow tina M. MasCiangioli, Responsible Staff Officer JessiCa Pullen, Administrative Assistant sheena siddiqui, Research Assistant lynelle vidale, Program Assistant * These members of the Chemical Sciences Roundtable oversaw the planning of the Workshop on Strengthening High School Chemistry Education Through Teacher Outreach Programs but were not involved in the writing of this workshop summary. 

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Board oN chemical scieNces aNd TechNoloGY co-chairs F. FleMing CriM, University of Wisconsin, Madison gary s. CalaBrese, Corning, Inc., Corning, New York members BenJaMin anderson, Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indiana PaBlo deBenedetti, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey ryan r. dirkx, Arkema Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania Mary galvin-donoghue, Air Products and Chemicals Materials Research Center, Allentown, Pennsylvania Paula t. haMMond, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts Carol J. henry, Independent Consultant, Bethesda, Maryland rigoBerto hernandez, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia Charles e. kolB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts Martha a. kreBs, California Energy Commission, Sacramento Charles t. kresge, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan sCott J. Miller, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut donald Prosnitz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California Mark a. ratner, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois erik J. sorensen, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey WilliaM C. trogler, University of California (San Diego), La Jolla, California thoMas h. uPton, ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Baytown, Texas National research council staff dorothy zolandz, Director andreW CroWther, Postdoctoral Fellow kathryn hughes, Program Officer tina M. MasCiangioli, Senior Program Officer eriCka M. MCgoWan, Program Officer JessiCa Pullen, Administrative Assistant sheena siddiqui, Research Assistant lynelle vidale, Program Assistant i

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Preface The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council. It provides a science-oriented apolitical forum for leaders in the chemi - cal sciences to discuss chemistry-related issues affecting government, industry, and uni - versities. Organized by the National Research Council’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. One way it does this is by organizing workshops that address issues in chemical science and technology that require national attention. In August 2008, the CSR organized a workshop on the topic, “Strengthening High School Chemistry Education through Teacher Outreach Program.” The workshop brought together representatives of government, industry, academia, scientific societies, and foundations who are involved in organizing, funding, and delivering in-service outreach programs for high school chemistry teachers. The goal of the workshop was to explore how high school chemistry education could be improved through teacher outreach programs, with a par- ticular emphasis on assessments of program effectiveness. The workshop sought programs that could improve the chemistry education of all students, not just those pursing a career in science. To this end, presentations at the workshop covered the current status of high school chemistry education; provided examples of public and private outreach programs; and explored how to evaluate whether current outreach programs are meeting the needs of chemistry teachers and students. The workshop did not attempt to address the many other issues related to high school chemistry education, including pre-service teacher training, national standards, teacher compensation, and teacher shortages. This document summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop, and includes poster presenter abstracts. In accordance with the policies of the CSR, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on issues identified by the speakers. In addi - tion, the organizing committee’s role was limited to planning the workshop. The workshop summary has been prepared by the workshop rapporteur Steve Olsen as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. ii

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acknowledgment of reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse per- spectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Paul Bryan, Chevron Technology Ventures LLC, Richmond, California John Chen, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Eric Jakobsson, University of Illinois, Urbana Steven Long, Rogers High School, Rogers, Arkansas Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and sugges - tions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Elizabeth A. Carvellas, Teacher Advisory Council. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review com - ments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. ix

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contents 1 Overview 1 2 Science and Science Education in the United States 3 3 The High School Chemistry Teacher: Status and Outlook 9 4 Initiatives by Federal Agencies 18 5 Exemplary Programs 24 6 Activities by Nonprofit and For-Profit Organizations 29 7 Future Actions 36 Appendixes A Workshop Agenda 43 B Biographies 46 C Poster Abstracts 52 D Workshop Attendees 56 E Origin of and Information on the Chemical Sciences Roundtable 58 xi

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