concerns that it would face great dangers in the absence of such wisdom.

Until the mid-twentieth century, science remained the haven and stable pillar of hope in modern society, but the agitations that the world of modernity experienced were not so powerful as to shake its huge structure. Even though events in Europe during the first four decades of the twentieth century dashed much of that hope and hopefulness, and though certain doubts and a sense of hopelessness grew among some scholars, the principle of placing hope in science remained firmly entrenched in society.

Modern science provided an objective point of view and numerous benefits to the overall quality of life, which parlayed into an optimistic trust in the future. However, the question of science as a tool for peace and understand was rarely posed in the history of science.

The advents of Stalinism in the USSR, National Socialism in Germany, and global engagement in World War II were not experiences that could be ignored. These events were signs of the emergence of another age. After the war, the perception that science fostered agreement among non-scientists, that scientists were in agreement with each other on scientific issues, and that their differences could be resolved easily had changed, and people began to realize that scientific agreement did not extend to other domains, including that of culture, beliefs, and politics.

Today, almost every society depends to some extent on technology, but societies cannot follow the scientific model to establish universal consensus. Up until now, along with hope about the contributions of science, there has also been hope that a new culture of understanding would disseminate worldwide and replace friction between cultures. We have seen that European and American philosophers and scholars have forgotten about embracing a unique culture. No longer do they believe that science will show the way to the future of the world. Even those who have taken the fall of the USSR as the sign of the victory of liberal democracy have not hidden their despair about the establishment of peace, consensus, and understanding in the world.



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