SCIENCE AS A GATEWAY TO UNDERSTANDING

International Workshop Proceedings Tehran, Iran

Glenn Schweitzer and Yousef Sobouti, Editors

Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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SCIENCE AS A GATEWAY TO UNDERSTANDING International Workshop Proceedings Tehran, Iran Glenn Schweitzer and Yousef Sobouti, Editors Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Acad- emy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the com- mittee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this pub- lication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-12879-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-12879-X A limited number of copies are available from the Office for Central Europe and Eurasia, The National Academy of Sciences, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washing- ton, DC 20001; (202) 334-2376. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624- 6242 or (202) 334-3313; Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the re- sponsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Insti- tute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF Glenn E. Schweitzer Program Director, National Academy of Sciences Merc Fox Senior Program Assistant, National Academy of Sciences Elizabeth D. Keller Mirzayan Science Policy Graduate Fellow, National Academy of Sciences iv

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Preface I n October 2007, the U.S. National Academies and the Iranian Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Science organized the first of a series of planned U.S.-Iranian workshops on the topic “Science as a Gateway to Understanding.” Several other Iranian organizations also cosponsored the event. They included the Ira- nian Academy of Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, and the Center for the Great Islamic Encyclopedia, where the workshop was held. This new workshop series is a component of the broader ef- fort of the National Academies to support bilateral workshops and exchange visits in a variety of fields with a number of Iranian insti- tutions that began in 2000. The Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Science is an important partner in this regard. Also, this workshop was a significant aspect of a visit by representatives of the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of En- gineering to Iran to review past cooperative efforts and to develop future programs. The speakers at the workshop represented a wide variety of disciplines in the natural and social sciences and quite different perspectives on the theme of the workshop. Former Iranian Presi- v

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vi PREFACE dent Mohammad Khatami was the keynote speaker. All attendees participated in their personal capacities, and the documents that were developed prior to and during the workshop express their per- sonal views. This report includes papers that were presented at the work- shop and summaries of the discussions that followed some of the presentations. At the conclusion of the workshop there was general agreement that the presentations on many aspects of science and scientific cooperation that have a bearing on mutual understanding were an important first step. Several participants underscored that the next workshop should emphasize how scientific cooperation can lead in concrete terms to improved understanding among both academic and political leaders from the two countries.

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Acknowledgments P rofessor Yousef Sobouti and his colleagues at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Science played the primary role in organizing the workshop and in compiling the papers included in this document. Together with former President Mohammad Khatami, he turned a vague concept into a highly pro- ductive workshop. This contribution is gratefully acknowledged. This volume has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Com- mittee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide can- did and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the re- port meets institutional standards for quality. The review com- ments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the in- tegrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of selected papers: Yousef Bozorgnia, University of California, Berkeley; George Bugliarello, Polytechnic University; John En- derby, Institute of Physics (Bristol); Wilhelmine Miller, The George Washington University; Yves Quéré, Ecole Polytechnique vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Paris-Palaiseau); Geraldine Richmond, University of Oregon; and Barbara Schaal, Washington University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided con- structive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to en- dorse the content of the individual papers. Responsibility for the final content of the papers rests with the individual authors.

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Contents Words of Welcome 1 Mohammad Kazem Bojnordi 1 Where Does Science Go? 3 Honorable Mohammad Khatami 2 Scientists and Truth 11 Reza Davari Ardakani 3 The Innovation Ecology 15 William Wulf 4 Wisdom: the Best Gateway to Understanding 25 Mostafa Mohagheh Damad 5 Interacademy Cooperation: An Approach to Understanding 33 Abulhassan Vafai 6 Understanding Others, the Science Way 37 Yousef Sobouti 7 Loving and Sharing Science: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes 45 Etienne Guyon ix

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x CONTENTS 8 Successes in Building International Bridges through Science 49 Norman Neureiter 9 The Universality of Science: Examples from History 57 Hossein Masoumi Hamedani 10 The Role of International Scientific Organizations 65 Michael Clegg 11 Science and Culture 77 Bernard Maitte 12 A Half Century of Successes and Problems in U.S.-Iranian Cooperation in Science, Engineering, and Medicine 89 Glenn Schweitzer 13 Opportunities for International Collaboration in Earthquake System Science 101 Thomas Jordan 14 Science, Technology, and Innovation in the Knowledge Economy: Prospects for Cooperation 129 Ousmane Kane 15 Summary of Open Forum 141 Yousef Sobouti 16 Closing Remarks 163 Norman Neureiter APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 167 B Workshop Participants 171