TABLE 2.1 Emphasizing observation requirements not currently met in the vicinity of listed phenomena that would improve definition of mesoscale structure and predictions out to 48 hours

Phenomenon

Size

Duration

Parameters to Observe

Resolution

∆x

∆t

∆z

Flooding from large-scale storms

300-2000 km

0.5-5.0 days

Temperature

50 km

3 h

200 m (up to 5 km MSL)

 

 

Moisture

 

 

 

 

 

Wind

 

 

 

 

 

Precipitation

 

 

 

Nor’easter

500-2000 km

0.5-4.0 days

SST

10 km

12 h

 

 

 

Temperature

 

 

 

 

 

Moisture

50 km

3 h

100 m (up to 12 km)

 

 

Wind

 

 

 

Snowstorms

swaths

2 h-2 days

Temperature

30 km

2 h

100 m (up to 5 km MSL)

Ice storms

200 km wide

 

Moisture

 

 

 

1000 km long

 

Wind

 

 

 

 

 

Precipitation

 

 

 

Hurricanes and tropical storms

100-2000 km

1-7 days

Temperature

Track forecasts

 

 

 

Moisture

100 km

6 h

500 m (up to 16 km)

 

 

Wind

Intensity changes

 

 

 

SST

10 km

3 h

200 m (up to 16 km)

 

 

Precipitation

 

 

 

Air pollution and toxic releases

20-1000 km

6 h-5 days

Temperature

Metro areas

 

 

 

Moisture

5 km

15 min

50 m | up to top of mixed

 

 

Wind

Rural areas

| layer, generally

 

 

Sources/sinks

20-30 km

30 min

50 m | below 4 km AGL)

 

 

Concentration

 

 

 



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