and ownership. The early science parks in the U.K., built in the 1980s, tend to be owned by universities and operated as income-generating properties. However, since technology transfer and business incubation have emerged as important drivers in the development of modern economies, the public sector has also become active in stimulating and funding new parks; Manchester is one example of such a shift. In the 1990s and in the 21st century, parks have been developed in the U.K. and in Europe with capital funding from regional development agencies which see science parks as tangible evidence of their region’s developing knowledge economy.
Many of these parks, she said, are partnerships between government and local universities, which in the U.K. receive funding from central government for this “third-mission” activity. She likened it to the development described earlier for the University of Maryland. More recently, private property developers have taken an interest in the science park idea, beginning to forge their own partnerships with public entities and adding yet more kinds of collaborations to the mix. Today about 11 percent of parks are privately owned, 19 percent are university-public partnerships, 27 percent are university-owned, and 43 percent are partnerships between universities and other public or private bodies.