Appendix D
Top Foreign Policy Problems Identified by Chicago Council on Foreign Relations Interviews with Foreign Policy Leaders, 1986–2002

Table D-1 Top foreign policy problems identified in 1986

Issue

Percent

Fellows after

Russia/dealings with Russia

46

 

Arms Control (Nuclear weapons, too much military equipment sold or given to other countries)

33

 

Latin/South/Central America

28

 

Balance of Payments (Trade deficit, too much money going out of country, import of foreign products)

17

 

Mid-East Situation (Non-specific)

15

 

Terrorism

11

 

Third World Problems (Poverty, underdevelopment)

11

 

International Trade (Free trade with all countries, some countries too strict with trade policies)

9

 

World Economy

8

 

Stronger Foreign Policy Needed (U.S. is compromising)

8

 

South Africa/Apartheid

8

 

War (Threat of war, threat of nuclear war)

6

 

Keeping Peace (Should have better relations)

5

 

Dealing with Communism

4

 

Devaluation of the Dollar/Money

3

 

Too Much Military Involvement in Other Countries

3

 

Changing Relations with African Countries

2

 

Foreign Aid (Too much sent to other countries)

2

 

Immigration (Illegal aliens)

2

 

Domestic Problems (Crime, unemployment, government waste, etc.)

2

 

Human Rights Campaign

2

 

China/Relations with China/China Economy

1

 



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Appendix D Top Foreign Policy Problems Identified by Chicago Council on Foreign Relations Interviews with Foreign Policy Leaders, 1986–2002 Table D-1 Top foreign policy problems identified in 1986 Issue Percent Fellows after Russia/dealings with Russia 46 Arms Control (Nuclear weapons, too much military equipment sold or given to other countries) 33 Latin/South/Central America 28 Balance of Payments (Trade deficit, too much money going out of country, import of foreign products) 17 Mid-East Situation (Non-specific) 15 Terrorism 11 Third World Problems (Poverty, underdevelopment) 11 International Trade (Free trade with all countries, some countries too strict with trade policies) 9 World Economy 8 Stronger Foreign Policy Needed (U.S. is compromising) 8 South Africa/Apartheid 8 War (Threat of war, threat of nuclear war) 6 Keeping Peace (Should have better relations) 5 Dealing with Communism 4 Devaluation of the Dollar/Money 3 Too Much Military Involvement in Other Countries 3 Changing Relations with African Countries 2 Foreign Aid (Too much sent to other countries) 2 Immigration (Illegal aliens) 2 Domestic Problems (Crime, unemployment, government waste, etc.) 2 Human Rights Campaign 2 China/Relations with China/China Economy 1 93

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Oil Problems (Oil shortage, dependency on oil-producing countries) 1 Cuba 1 Our Relationship with Japan 1 Our Relationship with Israel 0.5 Drugs (Smuggling, coming from other countries) 0.5 Table D-2 Top foreign policy problems identified in 1990 Issue Fellows before Percent Fellows after Iraq (Saddam Hussein) 44 Mid-East Situation (Non-specific) 29 Russia/dealings with Russia 21 International Trade (Free trade with all countries, some countries too strict with trade policies) 18 World Economy 14 Keeping Peace (Should have better relations) 13 Impact of Freedom in Eastern Europe 12 Our Relationship with Japan 9 Third World Problems (Poverty, underdevelopment) 8 Stronger Foreign Policy Needed (U.S. is compromising) 7 The Economic Unification of Europe 7 Arms Control (Nuclear weapons, too much military equipment sold or given to other countries) 6 Environment (environmental policies, oil spills, energy sources) 6 Latin/South/Central America 6 Balance of Payments (Trade deficit, too much money going out of country, import of foreign products) 5 Weak leadership (honesty in government/double standards with other countries) 5 Our Relationship with Israel 4 Too Much Military Involvement in Other Countries 4 China/Relations with China/China Economy 3 Oil Problems (Oil shortage, dependency on oil-producing countries) 3 94

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War (Threat of war, threat of nuclear war) 3 Don't Understand Foreign Culture 3 Foreign Aid (Too much sent to other countries) 2 Domestic Problems (Crime, unemployment, government waste, etc.) 2 Human Rights Campaign 2 Drugs (Smuggling, coming from other countries) 2 Dealing with Communism 2 Terrorism 1 Changing Relations with African Countries 1 Immigration (Illegal aliens) 1 Devaluation of the Dollar/Money 1 Cuba 0.5 South Africa/Apartheid 0.5 Table D-3 Top foreign policy problems identified in 1994 Issue Fellows before Percent Fellows after International Trade (Free trade with all countries, some countries too strict with trade policies) 24 Russia/dealings with Russia 23 Weak leadership (honesty in government/double standards with other countries) 19 Stronger Foreign Policy Needed (U.S. is compromising) 16 Our Relationship with Bosnia 16 Arms Control (Nuclear weapons, too much military equipment sold or given to other countries) 14 World Economy 11 Mid-East Situation (Non-specific) 7 Keeping Peace (Should have better relations) 7 U.S. Role as World Leader/World's Police 6 Third World Problems (Poverty, underdevelopment) 5 China/Relations with China/China Economy 5 Foreign Aid (Too much sent to other countries) 5 95

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Environment (environmental policies, oil spills, energy sources) 4 Our Relationship with North Korea 4 Our Relationship with Israel 3 Immigration (Illegal aliens) 3 Our Relationship with Japan 3 Balance of Payments (Trade deficit, too much money going out of country, import of foreign products) 2 War (Threat of war, threat of nuclear war) 2 Don't Understand Foreign Culture 2 Domestic Problems (Crime, unemployment, government waste, etc.) 2 United Nations (relations with UN, UN not doing its job) 2 Human Rights Campaign 2 Too Much Military Involvement in Other Countries 2 Dealing with Communism 2 South Africa/Apartheid 2 Terrorism 1 Iraq (Saddam Hussein) 1 Foreign Relations 1 Changing Relations with African Countries 1 Jobs going overseas (Keep our jobs in U.S.) 1 Latin/South/Central America 1 Cuba 1 Impact of Freedom in Eastern Europe 1 Overpopulation 1 Countries taking advantage of us 1 96

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Table D-4 Top foreign policy problems identified in 1998 Issue Fellows before Percent Fellows after World Economy 21 Iraq (Saddam Hussein) 18 Arms Control (Nuclear weapons, too much military equipment sold or given to other countries) 15 Russia/dealings with Russia 13 Japan/Asian Economy/Crisis 13 Mid-East Situation (Non-specific) 12 Terrorism 10 China/Relations with China/China Economy 9 U.S. Role as World Leader/World's Police 8 Stronger Foreign Policy Needed (U.S. is compromising) 6 International Trade (Free trade with all countries, some countries too strict with trade policies) 6 Keeping Peace (Should have better relations) 6 Third World Problems (Poverty, underdevelopment) 4 Foreign Relations 4 Our Relationship with North Korea 3 Our Relationship with Bosnia 3 Countries taking advantage of us 3 Trade (non-specific) 2 Religious issues/Fanaticism 2 Our Relationship with Israel 2 Environment (environmental policies, oil spills, energy sources) 2 Balance of Payments (Trade deficit, too much money going out of country, import of foreign products) 2 Jobs going overseas (Keep our jobs in U.S.) 2 Weak leadership (honesty in government/double standards with other countries) 2 Unrest in Israel/Israel and Palestine 1 Changing Relations with African Countries 1 Immigration (Illegal aliens) 1 97

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World Peace 1 National Security 1 Oil Problems (Oil shortage, dependency on oil-producing countries) 1 Domestic Problems (Crime, unemployment, government waste, etc.) 1 Latin/South/Central America 1 Devaluation of the Dollar/Money 1 United Nations (relations with UN, UN not doing its job) 1 Human Rights Campaign 1 Drugs (Smuggling, coming from other countries) 1 Cuba 1 Overpopulation 1 The Economic Unification of Europe 1 Our Relationship with Japan 1 Instability of foreign markets 1 Politics 1 Kosovo 1 Foreign Aid (Too much sent to other countries) 0.5 War (Threat of war, threat of nuclear war) 0.5 Don't Understand Foreign Culture 0.5 Too Much Military Involvement in Other Countries 0.5 Dealing with Communism 0.5 We need to help the children (Needy children/children of foreign countries) 0.5 Impact of Freedom in Eastern Europe 0.5 Hostages 0.5 South Africa/Apartheid 0.5 Need to Help the Needy (Non-specific) 0.5 98

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Table D-5 Top foreign policy problems identified in 2002 Issue Fellows before Percent Fellows after Terrorism 50 Mid-East Situation (Non-specific) 38 Unrest in Israel/Israel and Palestine 16 India and Pakistan issues 14 Arms Control (Nuclear weapons, too much military equipment sold or given to other countries) 9 Third World Problems (Poverty, underdevelopment) 8 World Economy 7 Stronger Foreign Policy Needed (U.S. is compromising) 7 China/Relations with China/China Economy 6 International Trade (Free trade with all countries, some countries too strict with trade policies) 5 Trade (non-specific) 5 Re-defining America's Role in an unstable environment 4 Iraq (Saddam Hussein) 4 Foreign Relations 4 Changing Relations with African Countries 4 Religious issues/Fanaticism 4 Foreign Aid (Too much sent to other countries) 3 Situation in Afghanistan 3 Loss of respect for U.S. abroad 3 Relations with Europe 3 AIDS/virus/disease/world sickness 3 Our Relationship with Israel 2 Environment (environmental policies, oil spills, energy sources) 2 Balance of Payments (Trade deficit, too much money going out of country, import of foreign products) 2 Russia/dealings with Russia 2 Immigration (Illegal aliens) 2 World Peace 2 National Security 2 Oil Problems (Oil shortage, dependency on oil-producing countries) 2 99

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War (Threat of war, threat of nuclear war) 2 Don't Understand Foreign Culture 2 Stay out of the affairs of other countries 2 Gap between rich and poor nations 2 Relations with far East countries 2 Globalization (non-specific) 2 U.S. Role as World Leader/World's Police 1 Domestic Problems (Crime, unemployment, government waste, etc.) 1 Jobs going overseas (Keep our jobs in U.S.) 1 Latin/South/Central America 1 Weak leadership (honesty in government/double standards with other countries) 1 Devaluation of the Dollar/Money 1 United Nations (relations with UN, UN not doing its job) 1 Human Rights Campaign 1 Too Much Military Involvement in Other Countries 1 Industrial competitiveness/economically or technically behind/declining productivity 1 U.S. relationship with NATO countries 1 Lack of trust/trust between countries 1 Drugs (Smuggling, coming from other countries) 1 bin Laden 1 Dealing with Communism 0.5 We need to help the children (Needy children/children of foreign countries) 0.5 Cuba 0.5 100