nanotechnology would help to ensure that the public-health mission receives appropriate priority. The nation has addressed concerns about separation of technology development and regulatory oversight authorities for a new and potentially hazardous technology in the past. When both supporters and critics of nuclear energy raised strong concerns about both development and regulatory oversight being housed in the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), Congress responded in 1974 by creating the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to house the oversight function and moved the technology development research into the Department of Energy (U.S. NRC 2008). Congress and the executive branch should consider this model in assuring the safe development of nanotechnology. As an interim step, the NNI Amendments Act of 2008 [H.R.5940.RFS] establishes a separate authority within the NNI with accountability for EHS research.

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