Appendix B
Data Gathered from Universities

Responses were received from 31 institutions1


Arizona State University

Arkansas State University

Brigham Young University

California Polytechnic State University

Gannon University

Iowa State University

Lafayette College

Lehigh University

Michigan State University

Mississippi State University

North Carolina State University

North Dakota State University

Northwestern University

The Ohio State University

Purdue University

San Jose State University

State University of New York (SUNY) Maritime College

1

These data were gathered by means of an online questionnaire. While every attempt was made to get responses from a representative selection of institutions, respondents ultimately were self-selected. Accordingly, data should not be considered to constitute a comprehensive statistical survey.



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Appendix B Data Gathered from Universities Responses were received from 31 institutions1 Arizona State University Arkansas State University Brigham young University California Polytechnic State University Gannon University Iowa State University Lafayette College Lehigh University Michigan State University Mississippi State University North Carolina State University North Dakota State University Northwestern University The Ohio State University Purdue University San Jose State University State University of New york (SUNy) Maritime College 1 These data were gathered by means of an online questionnaire. While every attempt was made to get responses from a representative selection of institutions, respondents ultimately were self-selected. Accordingly, data should not be considered to constitute a comprehensive statistical survey. 10

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aPPendix B 107 Trine University (before 8/1/2008, Tri-State) University of Alabama at Birmingham University of California, Berkeley University of Florida University of kansas University of Maryland University of Massachusetts, Lowell University of Michigan University of Pennsylvania University of Puerto Rico University of Texas at Austin University of Texas at El Paso University of Wisconsin-Madison Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Breakdown of schools/departments • Materials science, 61% • Other (chemical, civil, mechanical, environmental, or general engineering), 39% Do you follow a quarter system or a semester system? • quarter, 10% • Semester, 90% Do you offer a course or courses specifically in corrosion? • yes, 61%2 • No, 39% Level at which course is taught • Graduate, 27% • Undergraduate, 46% • Mixed, 27% Class size • Fewer than 20, 77% • 20-50, 19% • More than 100, 4% 2 See Table B-1 for a list of the 26 such courses.

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assessment c o r ro s i o n e d u c at i o n 10 of Required or elective • Required, 23% • Elective, 77% Frequency • yearly, 58% • Every other year, 38% • Less frequently than every other year, 4% Majors requiring the course • Metals specialty for a materials engineering degree • Chemical engineering • Metallurgy, biomaterials specialization in MSE • Materials science/mechanical engineering joint degree Do students from other departments enroll in the corrosion course? • yes, 61% • No, 39% What are these other departments (see Figure B-1)? • Aerospace engineering • Biological engineering • Biomedical engineering (3) • Chemical engineering (4) • Chemistry • Civil engineering (3) • Civil and environmental engineering • Dentistry • Electrical engineering and computer science • General engineering • Mechanical engineering (5) • Mining and materials engineering • Nuclear engineering • Petroleum engineering • Welding Do any of your courses address the electrochemical fundamentals of corrosion? • yes, 100% Do any of your courses address ways to minimize corrosion by design? • yes, 100%

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aPPendix B 10 6 Figure B-1 5 4 Number of Respondents 3 2 1 0 Aerospace Biomedical and Biological Chemical Chemistry Civil and Environmental Dentistry Electrical and Computer Science General Mechanical Mining and Materials Nuclear Petroleum Welding Home Department of Enrollees in the Corrosion Course Figure B-1.eps What are your reasons for offering a course in corrosion? • Preparation of students for careers as practicing materials engineers must contain elements of the full life cycle of materials. This includes materials degradation. • Student interest. • Essential knowledge for a metallurgist. • Critical for materials engineers. • This is an important course for those working in the electronics industry. • It is important for students to understand how to prevent corrosion. Also, the same concepts help them understand electroplating, batteries, and other phenomena. • To equip our graduates with practical tools as an outcome. • I have been associated with the topic for over 40 years and know of its impact and importance to technology and commerce. • Crucial information for materials scientists and engineers and highly useful for other engineers

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assessment c o r ro s i o n e d u c at i o n 110 of TABLE B-1 Corrosion Courses Level at Which Department in Number Course Is Required/ Which Course of Name of Course Credits Taught Elective Is Taught Frequency Students Corrosion 3 Graduate Elective Mechanical Yearly <20 engineering Corrosion 3 Mixed graduate/ Elective Mechanical Yearly <20 undergraduate engineering Corrosion 3 Mixed graduate/ Elective Materials Every other <20 undergraduate science year Corrosion 3 Mixed graduate/ Elective Materials Every other <20 undergraduate science year Corrosion 3 Undergraduate Elective Materials Yearly <20 science Corrosion 3 Undergraduate Required Materials Yearly <20 science Corrosion 3 Undergraduate Required Materials Yearly 20-50 (Chemical science Properties) Corrosion and 1 Undergraduate Elective Materials Less <20 Corrosion science frequently Protection than every other year Corrosion and 3 Undergraduate Required Materials Yearly 20-50 Failure Analysis science Corrosion and 2 Graduate Elective Materials Every other <20 Oxidation science year Corrosion 3 Graduate Elective Chemical and Yearly <20 Engineering petroleum engineering Corrosion 3 Undergraduate Required Materials Yearly 20-50 Engineering science Corrosion 3 Undergraduate Elective Mechanical Yearly <20 Engineering engineering Corrosion Lab 1 Undergraduate Elective Materials Yearly <20 science

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aPPendix B 111 TABLE B-1 Continued Level at Which Department in Number Course Is Required/ Which Course of Name of Course Credits Taught Elective Is Taught Frequency Students Corrosion Science 3 Graduate Elective Materials Yearly <20 science Degradation of 3 Mixed graduate/ Elective Materials Every other >100 Materials undergraduate science year Engineering 3 Undergraduate Required Materials Yearly 20-50 Materials science (Chemical Engineering) Environmental 3 Mixed graduate/ Elective Materials Yearly <20 Degradation of undergraduate science Materials Environmental 3 Graduate Elective Materials Yearly <20 Effects on science Materials Properties and Behavior Industrial 3 Mixed graduate/ Elective Materials Every other <20 Corrosion undergraduate science year Kinetics of 3 Undergraduate Elective Materials Every other <20 Materials science year Reactions Principles of 3 Mixed graduate/ Elective Materials Yearly <20 Corrosion undergraduate science Principles of 3 Graduate Elective Materials Every other <20 Corrosion and science year Electrochemical Processes Principles 3 Undergraduate Elective Materials Every other <20 of Materials science year Corrosion Special Topics in 3 Graduate Elective Materials Every other <20 Corrosion Science science year Stability of 3 Undergraduate Required Materials Yearly 20-50 Materials science

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assessment c o r ro s i o n e d u c at i o n 112 of • The two upper division courses that our graduates tell us are most impor- tant to their career are Corrosion and Failure Analysis. This feedback is in agreement with faculty perceptions. Both courses were switched from electives to required courses 3 years ago. • Corrosion is an important aspect of materials engineering, and students often need this information to design components or solve failure problems. • Undergraduate student interest in the subject. • Student/faculty interest. • Student demand, employer demand, distance education demand. Central part of the curriculum. • Generally, corrosion is almost everywhere, and teaching students this topic broadens their knowledge of material selection, design against corrosion, and prevention of corrosion. • Understanding of the fundamentals of corrosion. Techniques for testing for corrosion. Methods of preventing corrosion. • It is an important topic for many applications. Who teaches your corrosion courses? How are they trained? • Tenured and tenure-track faculty. These faculty have Ph.D. degrees in mate- rials science and industrial experience. • Lecturer. • Specialists in corrosion. They have large research activities in corrosion. • Courses are taught by regular faculty whose specialty is physical metallurgy with an emphasis on corrosion/failure analysis. • Ph.D.-level faculty. • A full professor who does research on electrochemistry. • Chemical engineering faculty members trained through formal course work and attending seminars related to industrial corrosion. • Ladder-rank faculty whose doctorates and research experience is either corrosion or related electrochemical fields. • Materials professor with background in electrochemistry/corrosion. • A professor with no formal training in corrosion. • I teach the course. I have a Ph.D. in metallurgy and materials science; over 40 years experience; taught the topic since 1965 at the college level. • Strong background in applied chemistry and attended corrosion short course at MIT in early 1980s. Has taught the corrosion course for more than 20 years. • Has a B.S. in materials engineering and a Ph.D. in biomedical engineering. Did biomaterials corrosion/wear research for his Ph.D. • Ceramics researcher by training and metallurgy researcher by training. • Electrochemical processes is a major interest area in his research.

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aPPendix B 11 Does the content of your corrosion course(s) cover a broad spectrum, or is it focused on satisfying the objectives required by the major/discipline?3 • Very broad spectrum, including metals, ceramics, polymers, wood, bio- materials, and biodegradable materials and unique environmental condi- tions, including marine, space, high temperature, high humidity, etc. • The course is focused on corrosion in metals, with a focus on both making and designing structures based on existing materials and on the aging of materials already in service. • Broad spectrum of materials and applications. We also cover materials degradation in other courses, such as polymer degradation in our polymer course. • The course is focused on aqueous and atmospheric corrosion of metals. • The content of this course includes forms of corrosion and their mech- anisms and principles of electrochemistry for cathodic protection and electrodeposition. How much has the content of your corrosion classes changed in the past 10 years?4 • It has changed significantly, primarily the inclusion of other degradation phenomena in addition to the classical electrochemical nature of aqueous metallic corrosion. • quite a bit. The course has migrated from being essentially all corrosion to include more failure analysis and less corrosion (more or less 50-50 split now). • The instructor has changed, and there is now more of an emphasis on electrochemistry. • Not very much, it is a sophomore-level undergraduate class so it focuses on the basics of corrosion. • Fairly significantly, responding to new research findings and different topi- cal applications. • More emphasis on polymer degradation; microbiologically induced cor- rosion; impact of corrosion on fracture mechanics as it applies to stress corrosion and fatigue. • The content has changed to include more electrochemical background and its application so that students gain an understanding of underlying principles rather than build knowledge through case studies. 3 Most other schools simply answered “broad” without going into detail. 4 Other schools answered “very little” or gave a number without details.

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assessment c o r ro s i o n e d u c at i o n 11 of If your institution does not offer corrosion, why not? • Other topics have more priority, 25% • No one available for or interested in teaching it, 33% • The material is covered in other courses, 42% Is corrosion covered in other courses?5 • yes, 80% • No, 20% Required or elective • Required, 80% • Elective, 20% Class size • Fewer than 20, 30% • 20-50, 41% • 51-100, 16% • More than 100, 14% Frequency of classes • yearly, 66% • Every semester, 18% • Every other year, 11% • Every quarter, 5% Time devoted to discussion of corrosion • One lecture, 41% • A few lectures, 48% • Multiple lectures, 11% Class level • Undergraduate, 79% • Mixed graduate/undergraduate, 19% • Graduate, 2% Majors that require the courses in which corrosion is discussed (see Figure B-2) • Materials science and engineering (4) • Bioengineering 5 Table B-2 lists these other courses.

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aPPendix B 11 6 Figure B-2 5 Number of Respondents 4 3 2 1 0 Chemical Civil General Industrial Materials Science Mechanical Manufacturing Nuclear Biological Majors Requiring One or More of the Courses That Teach Some Corrosion • Mechanical engineering (5) • Industrial engineering Figure B-2.eps • Chemical engineering (2) • Civil engineering (2) • Manufacturing engineering (2) • General engineering • Nuclear engineering Which other departments teach the course? • Chemistry (2) Do students from other departments enroll in the course(s)? • yes, 57% • No, 43%

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assessment c o r ro s i o n e d u c at i o n 11 of 7 Figure B-3 6 Number of Respondents 5 4 3 2 1 0 Aerospace Civil Chemical Chemistry Dentistry Engineering Physics General Industrial Nuclear Physics Mechanical Biomedical Electrical Home Department of Enrollees in Courses That Teach Some Corrosion From which other engineering departments do students enroll in the course (Figure B-3)? Figure B-3.eps • Mechanical engineering (6) • Chemical engineering (5) • Chemistry • General engineering (3) • Nuclear engineering • Biomedical engineering (4) • Civil engineering (2) • Industrial engineering (2) • Dentistry • Engineering physics • Aerospace engineering • Physics (2) • Electrical engineering If you do not offer corrosion in other courses why not? • Other topics have more priority, 50% • Nobody interested in or available for teaching it, 17% • Other, 33%

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aPPendix B 117 Other reasons: • Covered in the corrosion course • There is an entire course devoted to it, so there is no need to introduce it in other courses. Do you offer lab-based courses in corrosion? • yes, 11%6 • No, 89% Would your department consider hiring a faculty member whose technical focus is corrosion? • yes, 59% • No, 41% Would this faculty member • Fill a vacancy by a retiring or newly retired faculty member, 50% • Fill a newly created slot with requisite facilities set aside for the new hire, 12.5% • Other, 37.5% Other answers: • We would consider such a candidate if the candidate is competitive with candidates from other specialties. We do not have a specific position set aside for corrosion studies. • If they have strong materials expertise, not just corrosion. • If their work also involved applications of electrochemistry to energy production. • Would consider, but are not seeking this expertise for a current PVL. • Either vacancy by retirement or creating a new slot. Why would you not consider hiring such a faculty member? • Other topics have more priority, 91% • Limited availability of research funds, 9% Do you offer distance courses in corrosion? • yes, 7.5%7 • No, 92.5% 6 Listed in Table B-3. 7 Listed in Table B-4.

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assessment c o r ro s i o n e d u c at i o n 11 of TABLE B-2 Other Courses in Which Corrosion Is Taught Name of Course Credits Required/ Elective Biomaterials 3 Elective Chemistry for Mechanical Engineering 4 Required Civil Engineering Materials 3 Required Design I 3 Required Design II 3 Required Electrochemistry 3 Elective Environmental Effects of Engineering Materials 3 Elective Experimental Materials Science and Design 2 Required Failure Analysis 3 Required Ferrous Metallurgy 3 Required Foundation Engineering 1 Required Fundamentals of Materials Engineering 3 Required Introduction to Ceramics 3 Required Introduction to Materials 3 Required Introduction to Materials Engineering 3 Required Introduction to Materials Engineering Lab 1 Required Introduction to Materials Science 3 Required Introduction to Materials Science 3 Required Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering 3 Required Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering 5 Required Introduction to Surface Science 3 Elective Materials and Manufacturing for Aero and Ocean Engineers 3 Required Materials Design 1 Required Materials Science 3 Required Mechanical Behavior of Materials 3 Required Metallurgy 3 Required Physical Ceramics 3 Required Physical Materials II 3 Required Physical Metallurgy 3 Required Plant Design 3 Required Polymer Technology and Engineering 3 Elective Process Design 4 Required Process Monitoring and Control 4 Required Processing of Metallic Materials 3 Elective Properties of Materials 3 Required Steel Design 1 Required Structural and Biomaterials 3 Elective Structure and Properties of Materials 3 Required Structure/Property Relations in Metals 3 Required Thermodynamics 3 Elective Thermodynamics 4 Required Thermodynamics 3 Required Thermodynamics in Materials Engineering 3 Required Transport Phenomena 3 Elective

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aPPendix B 11 Time Devoted to Graduate/ Undergraduate Course is Offered Enrollment Discussion of Corrosion Mixed graduate/undergraduate Every other year <20 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly 51-100 One lecture Undergraduate Yearly <20 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly <20 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly <20 One lecture Undergraduate Yearly <20 Multiple lectures Undergraduate Every other year <20 Multiple lectures Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 One lecture Undergraduate Yearly <20 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Undergraduate Every other year <20 One lecture Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Mixed graduate/undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Undergraduate Every semester >100 One lecture Undergraduate Every quarter >100 One lecture Undergraduate Every quarter >100 One lecture Undergraduate Every semester >100 One lecture Undergraduate Every semester 51-100 One lecture Undergraduate Yearly 51-100 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Mixed graduate/undergraduate Every other year <20 One lecture Undergraduate Yearly 51-100 Multiple lectures Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Undergraduate Every semester 51-100 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly 51-100 A few lectures Undergraduate Every semester 51-100 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 One lecture Undergraduate Every semester 20-50 Multiple lectures Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 One lecture Mixed graduate/undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Mixed graduate/undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly <20 A few lectures Mixed graduate/undergraduate Yearly 20-50 One lecture Undergraduate Every semester >100 One lecture Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 One lecture Mixed graduate/undergraduate Yearly <20 Multiple lectures Undergraduate Every semester >100 One lecture Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Graduate Yearly <20 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 A few lectures Undergraduate Yearly 20-50 One lecture Mixed graduate/undergraduate Every other year <20 One lecture

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assessment c o r ro s i o n e d u c at i o n 120 of TABLE B-3 Lab-Based Courses in Corrosion Graduate/ Required/ Number of Independent/Part of Name Credits Undergraduate Elective Sessions Another Course Corrosion and 3 Undergraduate Required 16-20 Part of another Failure Analysis course Corrosion 3 Undergraduate Required 21-25 Part of another Engineering course Corrosion Lab 1 Mixed graduate/ Elective 6-10 Independent undergraduate TABLE B-4 Distance Courses in Corrosion Graduate/ Required/ Accept Nonenrolled Name of Course Credits Undergraduate Elective Enrollment Students? Corrosion 3 Mixed graduate/ Elective <20 Yes undergraduate Corrosion 3 Undergraduate Elective <20 Yes Engineering Corrosion 3 Graduate Elective <20 Yes Science How are nonenrolled students allowed to take the course? • This option is usually available to students at companies with which we coordinate distance-education offerings. We consider these students as pros- pects for admission to formal degree programs. They must hold a relevant undergraduate degree and, in general, be admissible to the graduate school. • With permission of the instructor. Do you offer short professional courses in corrosion? • yes, 3%8 • No, 96% Are there any prerequisites to taking these short professional courses? • No, 100% 8 Information on the single short course may be found in Table B-5.

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aPPendix B 121 TABLE B-5 Short Course on Corrosion Graduate/ How Often Name of Course Credits Undergraduate Offered Enrollment Where Taught Special Topics in 1 Open enrollment Infrequently <20 On campus Corrosion What percentage of your bachelor’s-level graduates wind up working in the fol- lowing fields (average across responses)? • Design, 23% • Manufacturing, 40% • Research or academia, 24% • Other, 13% What percentage of your master’s-level graduates wind up working in the fol- lowing fields (average across responses)? • Design, 21% • Manufacturing, 34% • Research or academia, 38% • Other, 7% What percentage of your Ph.D.-level graduates wind up working in the following fields (average across responses) • Design, 14% • Manufacturing, 23% • Research or academia, 56% • Other, 7% Optional Questions Is your department doing any corrosion-specific research? If so, who is funding it? • yes. DOE, DOD, SERDP, industry, • yes. Funded by Air Force. • DOE. • DOD/industry/DOE. • No, although some corrosion-prevention work was done in the past. • Industry, DOE, NSF, state. • Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Defense. • Not much now but anticipate substantially more soon. DOD.

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assessment c o r ro s i o n e d u c at i o n 122 of Do you have any actual or potential partnerships with industry to study cor- rosion or develop continuing education for practicing engineers? If so, please describe them. • yes. Research activities. • yes. Joint projects, industry-sponsored projects, short courses onsite for engineers. • Have a nearly completed plan to establish a distance education corrosion course in cooperation with ASM. • Ongoing industrial partnerships in areas such as oil pipelines, semiconduc- tor manufacturing, etc. • We are developing continuing education options with a number of manu- facturing companies. How does the teaching of corrosion R&D fit into your strategic planning? • It does not. • Dependent upon interest and funding opportunities. • It is rarely discussed. • Major component. • It does not have a high profile compared to things like nano, bio, etc. Still a necessary part of the education for our alumni in engineering companies. • It is not a critical component. Corrosion is one of the many design con- siderations and is equivalently important to other materials selection and materials design factors. • Unclear at this point. • Seen as crucial in priority areas such as materials for energy applications, nanotechnology. • We will continue to offer a course in corrosion/electrochemistry. • We feel it is important in a broad context that includes other failure mecha- nisms like wear. • Only as an outcome for the undergraduate chemical engineering. • The department faculty feel corrosion is a critical area where students need a basic understanding • It is not a focus area. What are the challenges in establishing/maintaining corrosion classes? • It is not a required class for our students and they have very few electives in their programs. • Student interest. • Lack of faculty interest. • The lack of an adequate textbook that covers ALL aspects of the environ- mental degradation of materials. Textbooks that are exclusive to metals are

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aPPendix B 12 becoming less applicable and useful. Metallic corrosion is only one of many important topics. • Faculty with sufficient knowledge of current status of field. • The fundamentals of electrochemistry have to be taught. This topic is not well covered in core courses. • Getting the resources to have a substantial lab experience. • A more exciting textbook that emphasizes more modern applications would help. In general, though, the instructor for our corrosion classes is so highly regarded that students enjoy his classes. Many students from outside of the major take them as electives. • None. • Professors earn tenure via research, in the main, and it is not easy to do that in the corrosion area. Thus it is difficult to maintain faculty expertise in this particular subject. • Moderate student interest and a perception that it is less exciting than mak- ing new products. • Enrollment numbers are low. • Good instructors. Do you see a role for 2-year colleges in corrosion education? • No. We have a very strong community college system, and half of our B.S. graduates came from a 2-year program at a community college, where they covered basic physics, chemistry, and math. • Do not see a role, but we accept 2-year college graduates in all of the engi- neering programs. • No • Maybe a role. None accepted as yet. • In general, we would rather have students focus on foundational science and engineering at 2-year colleges. • yes, but we have not received applicants from any students with a corrosion background. • Haven’t seen any.