October 7, 1939–June 14, 2006
BY JOYCE MARCUS
EDWARD CRAIG MORRIS, KNOWN AS “Craig” to his many friends, was the leading Inka archaeologist of his time. His studies of governmental storage and the expansionist strategies employed by the Inka are considered classics in the field. Morris was best known for his excavations in Peru, at the archaeological sites of Huánuco Pampa (the most completely preserved highland Inka site) and La Centinela (a major coastal ruin in the Chincha Valley). There he documented the operation of the economic, social, political, and religious institutions of the Inka. Although many of his predecessors had relied exclusively on written texts (e.g., 16th-century Spanish documents), Morris sought to evaluate those documents with excavation and settlement pattern data, thereby obtaining a richer and more accurate view of the Inka empire. Morris’s multiyear excavation projects supplied abundant empirical evidence to generate new models of how the Inka empire succeeded in integrating diverse ethnic groups occupying altitudinal zones from sea level to 4000 meters.
Morris was a modest and unassuming scholar who nevertheless managed to transform Andean archaeology, altering our views of Inka institutions and mode of governance. Unfailingly gracious and generous, he was the kind of person usually referred to as a gentleman scholar. As Ellen