. "6 Treatment of Depression in Parents." Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children: Opportunities to Improve Identification, Treatment, and Prevention. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009.
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Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children: Opportunities to Improve Identification, Treatment, and Prevention
patients treated to remission with medications (Blackburn, Eunson, and Bishop, 1986; Gotlib and Hammen, 2008; Kovacs et al., 1981). In addition, studies suggest that CBT is effective for the prevention of depression in patients who are at risk but are not currently depressed (Seligman et al., 1999). Recent studies have suggested that, among the components of CBT, behavioral activation (i.e., getting patients to pleasurable and meaningful activities) may be even more effective than the cognitive restructuring component of CBT (Dimidjian et al., 2006). Because it is easy to teach patients and requires less therapist training than cognitive interventions, behavioral activation might extend the availability and effectiveness of psychotherapy for depression. However, strong empirical evidence is absent with regard to the efficacy of CBTs and other behavioral interventions among diverse racial and ethnic minority populations. Larger studies, including those examining adaptations of evidence-based treatments for diverse populations are needed. The use of race and/or ethnicity should be considered an integral part of the study methodology, data collection, and analyses, along with the utilization of culturally and linguistically appropriate instruments and measures (de Arellano et al., 2005). Studies examining disparities in depression treatment highlight the unique barriers that racial and ethnic minorities experience when seeking mental health care and quality of care remains a critical issue. Actually, having access to any mental health treatment remains a central point of concern for racial and ethnic minority groups (Alegría et al., 2008).
A new therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), combines meditation with more conventional CBT (Segal, Williams, and Teasdale, 2002). MBCT is based on the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. It integrates elements of CBT with components of Kabat-Zinn’s mindfulness stress reduction program and “teaches patients to recognize and disengage from modes of mind characterized by negative and ruminative thinking and to access and use a new mode of mind characterized by acceptance and ‘being’” (Coelho, Canter, and Ernst, 2007). Studies have demonstrated that MBCT is an effective therapy to prevent relapse or recurrence in recovered depressed patients with three or more previous episodes (Ma and Teasdale, 2004). It has also been shown to be an adjunct to the treatment of other psychological problems, including substance abuse, as well as changing behavior (Margolin et al., 2006; Witkiewitz and Marlatt, 2004). Multiple studies are currently investigating the effectiveness of MBCT for the treatment of current depression and prevention of relapse or recurrence. Furthermore, MBCT therapies have been effectively used in African American and Hispanic women to prevent relapse or recurrence of co-occurring disorders (i.e., substance use and trauma) (personal commu-