Appendixes



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Appendixes

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Appendix A Committee Members and Staff COMMITTEE MEMBERS William W. Stead, Chair, is associate vice chancellor for strategy/ transformation and director of the Informatics Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. He serves as chief information officer of the Medical Center and chief information architect for the university. The Informatics Center is a unique blend of the units that manage the medi- cal center’s information technology infrastructure, the Department of Biomedical Informatics of the School of Medicine (research and educa- tion), the Eskind Biomedical Library (knowledge management), and the Center for Better Health (accelerating change). Dr. Stead received his B.A. and M.D. from Duke University, where he also completed specialty and subspecialty training in internal medicine and nephrology. As an undergraduate in the 1960s, he was a member of the team that developed the Cardiology Databank, one of the first clinical epidemiology projects to change practice by linking outcomes to process. As a faculty member in nephrology, he was the physician in the physician-engineer partner- ship that developed The Medical Record (TMR), one of the first practical electronic medical record systems. He helped Duke build one of the first patient-centered hospital information systems (IBM’s PCS/ADS). He led (as principal investigator) two prominent academic health centers, Duke in the 1980s and Vanderbilt in the 1990s, through both planning and implementation phases of large-scale, Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) projects. At Vanderbilt, his team has been successful in creating informatics techniques for linking information into 

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 COMPUTATIONAL TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFECTIVE HEALTH CARE clinical workflow, in overcoming the barriers to technology adoption, and in reducing the cost and time required to implement enterprise-wide information technology infrastructure. Dr. Stead is the McKesson Founda- tion Professor of Biomedical Informatics and a professor of medicine. He is a founding fellow of both the American College of Medical Informat- ics and the American Institute for Engineering in Biology and Medicine, and an elected member of both the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies and the American Clinical and Climatological Association. He was the founding editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, and he served as president of the American Asso- ciation for Medical Systems and Informatics and the American College of Medical Informatics. Dr. Stead served as chair of the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine, as a presidential appointee to the Com- mission on Systemic Interoperability, and as a member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council. In addition to his academic and advisory responsibilities, he is a director of HealthStream. Dr. Stead is co-inventor of two patient medical record products—one licensed to McKessonHBOC, Inc., and one licensed to Informatics Corporation of America—from which he receives royalties through Vanderbilt University. G. Octo Barnett is a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and senior research director at the Laboratory of Computer Science (LCS), the clinical and research informatics division of the Department of Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), which provides clinical and research information systems support to the hospital and conducts active research into the application of computer technology in medical record systems, physician workstations, clinical problem solv- ing, expert systems in medical diagnosis, knowledge management, and clinical research. Dr. Barnett’s current projects include Dxplain®, a deci- sion support system developed at LCS that has the characteristics of both a medical diagnosis aid and a medical reference system; Primary Care Office Insite (PCOI), a focused primary-care-physician-oriented Web site that gathers in a single, easily navigable site a wealth of practical, useful material, including patient care guidelines, therapy information, educa- tional material for patients, and workflow support; and Pulmonary Artery Catheter Waveform Interpretation Tool (PACath), a program that will provide expert knowledge in interpreting and troubleshooting pulmonary artery catheter waveforms. In 1996, Dr. Barnett won the American Medical Informatics Association’s Morris F. Collen Award. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine.

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 APPENDIX A Susan B. Davidson joined the University of Pennsylvania in 1982 and is now the Weiss Professor and Chair of Computer and Information Science of the School of Engineering and Applied Science. She is an ACM fellow and a Fulbright scholar, and she recently stepped down as found- ing co-director of the Penn Center for Bioinformatics (PCBI). Preceding the formation of the PCBI, Dr. Davidson was involved with planning and administering an NSF-funded research training program in compu- tational biology, which has been run at the University of Pennsylvania since 1995. She also helped establish undergraduate degree programs in bioinformatics and computational biology run through the Department of Biology and Department of Computer and Information Science, as well as tracks in this field in the Master’s of Biotechnology degree program. Dr. Davidson’s research interests include database systems, database model- ing, distributed systems, and bioinformatics. Within bioinformatics she is best known for her work in data integration, xML query and update technologies, and more recently provenance in workflow systems. She received the B.A. degree in mathematics from Cornell University in 1978, and the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering and computer science from Princeton University in 1980 and 1982. Eric Dishman is the founder, general manager, and global direc- tor of Intel Corporation’s Health Research & Innovation Group. Trained as a communication scholar and social scientist, Dr. Dishman has used qualitative research methods for more than 13 years to help technology companies understand and invent new market, business, and technol- ogy opportunities. He and his team borrow from anthropological and other social scientific methods to interview, observe, and even live with thousands of people around the world at home, work, and play. Dr. Dishman’s research has focused primarily on medical anthropology, med- ical informatics, health care IT technologies, home health care, chronic disease management, telehealth, and aging-in-place technologies, first for Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, and now for Intel Corporation. As general manager of Intel’s Health Research & Innovation Group—part of Intel’s newly formed Digital Health Group—Dr. Dishman is respon- sible for driving global R&D for new health care and wellness-related technologies across the continuum of care from hospital to home. He also directs the Intel Proactive Health Research laboratory focused on home health technologies for seniors and their families who are struggling with cognitive decline, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Most recently, his group has been conducting pioneering “behavioral biomarker” research by deploying wireless sensor network, digital home, and machine learn-

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 COMPUTATIONAL TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFECTIVE HEALTH CARE ing technologies into the homes of seniors for unprecedented early detec- tion, differentiation, and personalized treatment of conditions such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Dr. Dishman spends much of his time on the national circuit speaking about and lobbying for new technologies that can help improve health care quality while reducing costs by shifting health care from a reactive, crisis-driven paradigm to a proactive, preven- tion-driven paradigm. He is a nationally known speaker on the topics of aging and home health care technologies, and he serves as an advisor to numerous companies, universities, and congressional members on assis- tive technologies, telehealth, and home health care. Deborah L. Estrin is a professor of computer science with a joint appointment in electrical engineering at UCLA, holds the Jon Postel Chair in Computer Networks, and is founding director of the NSF-funded Cen- ter for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS). She received her Ph.D. (1985) in computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy, her M.S. (1982) from MIT, and her B.S. (1980) from University of California., Berkeley. Before joining UCLA in 2000 she was a professor in the University of Southern California’s Computer Science Department. In 1987, Dr. Estrin received the NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award for her research in network interconnection and security. Dr. Estrin has been a co-principal investigator on many NSF- and DARPA-funded proj- ects. She chaired a 1997-1998 ISAT study on sensor networks and the 2001 NRC study on networked embedded computing which produced the report Embedded, Eerywhere. She chaired the Sensors and Sensor Net- works subcommittee of the NEON Network Design Committee. Dr. Estrin is currently a member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and sits on the board of TTI/Vanguard. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a fellow of the ACM and IEEE, and she received the first ACM Athena Lecturer Award (2006) and the Anita Borg Women of Vision Award (2008). Alon Halevy is a research scientist at Google, Inc. Before joining Google, Dr. Halevy was a professor of computer science at the University of Washington, Seattle. Prior to joining the University of Washington, Dr. Halevy was a principal member of the technical staff at AT&T Bell Labo- ratories, and then at AT&T Laboratories. The main goal of his research is to build tools that simplify people’s access to data, typically in complex data environments, which he refers to as dataspaces. To support this goal, his areas of research are integrating data from multiple (structured and unstructured) sources, machine-learning approaches to resolving schema heterogeneity, personal information management, management of xML data, and query processing and optimization. He is very inter- ested in the combination of techniques from artificial intelligence and data management. He believes that the data management community

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 APPENDIX A should shift its focus away from enterprise computing and consider con- sumer-facing applications. Dataspace support platforms aim to offer an abstraction at which problems relevant to consumer-facing applications can be addressed. In 1999, Dr. Halevy co-founded Nimble Technology, one of the first companies in the enterprise information integration space. In 2004, Dr. Halevy founded Transformic, Inc., a company that created search engines for the deep Web (i.e., content residing in databases behind Web forms). Dr. Halevy was a Sloan fellow (1999-2000) and received the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers in 2000. He serves on the editorial board of the Very Large Databases Journal and on the advisory board of the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research. He served as the program chair for the ACM SIGMOD 2003 Conference and has given several keynote addresses at top conferences. In 2006 Dr. Halevy received the VLDB 10-year Best Paper Award for his work on data integration, and he was elected as a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. He received his Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University in 1993. Donald A. Norman is the Breed Professor of Design at Northwestern University, where he co-directs MMM, the dual-degree MBA and engi- neering program offered jointly by Northwestern’s schools of manage- ment and engineering that focuses on managing products and services from design to execution. He is also co-director of the Segal Design Insti- tute. He is co-founder of the Nielsen Norman Group and has been vice president of Apple Computer and an executive at Hewlett Packard. He serves on many advisory boards, such as the editorial advisory board of Encyclopedia Britannica, and the advisory board for the Department of Industrial Design at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Tech- nology (KAIST). He has received honorary degrees from the University of Padova (Italy) and the Technical University of Delft (the Netherlands); the Lifetime Achievement Award from SIGCHI, the professional orga- nization for Computer-Human Interaction; and the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science from the Franklin Institute (Philadelphia). Ida Sim is an associate professor of medicine and director, Center for Clinical and Translational Informatics at the University of California, San Francisco. She received her M.D. and her Ph.D. in medical informat- ics from Stanford University and her primary care internal medicine training from the Massachusetts General Hospital. She is also fellowship- trained in general internal medicine at Stanford University. Dr. Sim’s research focus is on knowledge-based technologies for clinical research and evidence-based practice. She received the United States Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers in 2000 for her work on the Trial Bank Project, which developed fundamental informatics tech-

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 COMPUTATIONAL TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFECTIVE HEALTH CARE nologies for a computable knowledge base of randomized trials. She has since led multiple projects related to semantic standards and visualization methods for clinical research, clinical trial reporting bias, new models of scientific e-publication of clinical research, and work on the adoption of electronic health records in primary care practices for quality improve- ment. In policy work, Dr. Sim was the founding project coordinator of the World Health Organization’s International Clinical Trials Registry platform, which sets global standards on clinical trial registration and reporting. Dr. Sim serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Biomedical Informatics, is on the advisory board for PLoS One, and is a fellow of the American College of Medical Informatics. Alfred z. Spector is vice president of Research and Special Initiatives at Google, Inc. Previously, he was vice president of Strategy and Technol- ogy for IBM’s Software Group. In other jobs at IBM, Dr. Spector was the vice president of Services and Software Research, the general manager of Marketing and Strategy for IBM’s AIM business, responsible for a num- ber of IBM software product families including CICS, WebSphere, and MQSeries, and also the general manager of IBM’s Transaction Systems business. Dr. Spector was also founder and CEO of Transarc Corporation, a pioneer in distributed transaction processing and wide-area file sys- tems, and an associate professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. He is an advisor to the Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science and is a member of the visiting committee of the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Science. Dr. Spector received his Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University and his A.B. in applied math- ematics from Harvard University. He was the 2001 recipient of the IEEE Computer Society’s Tsutomu Kanai Award for major contributions to state-of-the-art distributed computing systems and their applications. He is a fellow of the IEEE and ACM. In 2004, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. Peter Szolovits is a professor of computer science and engineering in the MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), professor of health sciences and technology in the Harvard/ MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology (HST), and head of the Clinical Decision-Making Group within the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). His research centers on the application of AI methods to problems of medical decision making and design of information systems for health care institutions and patients. He has worked on problems of diagnosis, therapy planning, execution, and monitoring for various medical conditions; computational aspects of genetic counseling; controlled sharing of health information; and privacy and confidentiality issues in medical record systems. His interests in AI include knowledge representation, qualitative reasoning, and probabilis-

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 APPENDIX A tic inference. His interests in medical computing include Web-based het- erogeneous medical record systems, lifelong personal health information systems, and design of cryptographic schemes for health identifiers. He teaches classes in artificial intelligence, programming languages, medi- cal computing, medical decision making, knowledge-based systems, and probabilistic inference. Professor Szolovits has been on the editorial board of several journals, has served as program chair and on the program com- mittees of national conferences, and has been a founder of and consultant for several companies that apply AI to problems of commercial interest. Professor Szolovits was elected to the Institute of Medicine and is a fel- low of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, the American College of Medical Informatics, and the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering. Andries van Dam has been on the Brown University faculty since 1965 and was one of the Computer Science Department’s co-founders and its first chair, from 1979 to 1985. He was a principal investigator in, and director from 1996-1998 of, the NSF Science and Technology Center for Graphics and Visualization, a research consortium including Brown, Caltech, Cornell University, the University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill), and the University of Utah. His research has concerned computer graphics; hypermedia systems; post-WIMP user interfaces, including pen- centric computing, and educational software. He has been working for nearly four decades on systems for creating and reading electronic books with interactive illustrations for use in teaching and research. Professor van Dam received the B.S. degree with honors in engineering sciences from Swarthmore College in 1960 and the M.S. and Ph.D. from the Uni- versity of Pennsylvania in 1963 and 1966, respectively. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Gio Wiederhold is a professor emeritus of computer science at Stan- ford University, with courtesy appointments in medicine and electrical engineering. His recent research includes privacy protection in collab- orative settings, large-scale software composition, access to simulations to augment decision-making capabilities for information systems, and developing algebra over ontologies. His current research supports the U.S. Treasury in assessing international intellectual property transfers. Prior to his academic career he spent 16 years in the software industry. His career followed computer technologies, starting with numerical analysis applied to rocket fuel, FORTRAN and PL/1 compilers, real-time data acquisition, and a time-oriented database system for ambulatory care, leading to his eventually becoming a corporate software architect. He has been elected a fellow of the ACMI, the IEEE, and the ACM. He spent 1991- 1994 as the program manager for knowledge-based systems at DARPA in Washington, D.C. He has been an editor and editor-in-chief of several

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 COMPUTATIONAL TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFECTIVE HEALTH CARE IEEE and ACM publications. Professor Wiederhold served as a contribu- tor and reviewer for several CSTB reports, including Information Technol- ogy Research, Innoation, and E-Goernment; Youth, Pornography, and the Internet; Technical, Business, and Legal Dimensions of Protecting Children from Pornography on the Internet: Proceedings of a Workshop; Nontechnical Strate- gies to Reduce Children’s Exposure to Inappropriate Material on the Internet: Summary of a Workshop; Reiew of the FBI’s Trilogy Information Technology Modernization Program; and a letter report to the FBI. Professor Wiederhold received a degree in aeronautical engineering in Holland in 1957 and a Ph.D. in medical information science from the University of California at San Francisco in 1976. STAFF MEMBERS Herbert S. Lin is chief scientist at the Computer Science and Telecom- munications Board, National Research Council, where he has been the study director of major projects on public policy and information technol- ogy. These studies include a 1996 study on national cryptography policy (Cryptography’s Role in Securing the Information Society), a 1991 study on the future of computer science (Computing the Future), a 1999 study of Defense Department systems for command, control, communications, computing, and intelligence (Realizing the Potential of CI: Fundamental Challenges), a 2000 study on workforce issues in high technology (Building a Workforce for the Information Economy), a 2002 study on protecting kids from Internet pornography and sexual exploitation (Youth, Pornography, and the Internet), a 2004 study on aspects of the FBI’s information technology moderniza- tion program (A Reiew of the FBI’s Trilogy IT Modernization Program), a 2005 study on electronic voting (Asking the Right Questions About Electronic Voting), a 2005 study on computational biology (Catalyzing Inquiry at the Interface of Computing and Biology), a 2007 study on privacy and informa- tion technology (Engaging Priacy and Information Technology in a Digital Age), and a 2007 study on cybersecurity research (Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace). Prior to his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986-1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He received his doctorate in physics from MIT. Avocationally, he is a longtime folk and swing dancer and a poor magician. Apart from his CSTB work, he is published in cognitive science, science education, biophysics, and arms control and defense policy. He also consults on K-12 math and science education. During this study, David Padgham was associate program officer at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) of the National Research Council. His work comprised a robust mix of writing,

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 APPENDIX A research, and project management, and he contributed to the development and publication of numerous CSTB studies. Prior to CSTB, Mr. Padgham was a policy analyst with the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), working closely with ACM’s public policy committee, USACM, to develop and support the organization’s policy principles and promote its policy interests. He holds a master’s degree in library and information science (2001) from Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., and a bachelor of arts in English (1996) from Warren Wilson College in Asheville, N.C.