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Ajami, N.K., Q.Y. Duan, and S. Sorooshian, 2007, An integrated hydrologic Bayesian multimodel combination framework: Confronting input, parameter, and model structural uncertainty in hydrologic prediction, Water Resources Research, 43, W01403, doi: 10.1029/2005WR004745.

ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers), 2005a, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE/SEI Standard 7-05, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Va., available on CD-ROM.

ASCE, 2005b, Flood Resistant Design and Construction, ASCE Standard 24-05, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Va., 80 pp.

Bernknopf, R.L., R. Campbell, and C. Shapiro, 1988, An economic and geographic appraisal of a spatial natural hazard risk: A study of landslide mitigation rules, Environment and Planning A, 20, 621-631.

Bernknopf, R.L., D.S. Brookshire, and M. Thayer, 1990, Earthquake and volcano notices: An economic evaluation of changes in risk perception, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 18, 35-49.

Bernknopf, R.L., D.S. Brookshire, D.R. Soller, M.J. McKee, J.F. Sutter, J.C. Matti, and R.H. Campbell, 1993, Societal Value of Geologic Maps, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1111, Denver, Colo., 53 pp.

Bernknopf, R.L., D.S. Brookshire, M. McKee, and D.R. Soller, 1997, Estimating the social value of geologic map information: A regulatory application, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 32, 204-218.

Bin, O., and S. Polasky, 2004, Effects of flood hazards on property values. Evidence before and after Hurricane Floyd, Land Economics, 80, 490-500.

Büchele, B., H. Kreibich, A. Kron, A. Thieken, J. Ihringer, P. Oberle, B. Merz, and F. Nestmann, 2006, Flood-risk mapping: Contributions towards an enhanced assessment of extreme events and associated risks, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 6, 485-503.

CDWR (California Department of Water Resources), 2005, Multiobjective Approaches to Floodplain Management on a Watershed Basis: Natural Floodplain Functions and Societal Values; available online at <http://www.economics.water.ca.gov/downloads/EPA/Floodplain%20Functions%20Values_May%2005.doc>.

Census Bureau, 2005, Table A1: Interim projection of the total population of the United States and states: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2030, Population Division, Interim State Population Projections; available online at <http://www.2010census.biz/population/projections/SummaryTabA1.pdf>.

Chivers, J., and N.E. Flores, 2002, Market failure in information: The National Flood Insurance Program, Land Economics, 78, 515-521.

Divoky, D., and D.T. Resio, 2008, Performance of the JPM and EST methods in storm surge studies, 13 pp.; available online at <http://www.waveworkshop.org/10thWaves/Papers/divokyResioJPMESTpaperFinal.pdf>.

Dixon, L., N. Clancy, S.A. Seabury, and A. Overton, 2006, The National Flood Insurance Program’s Market Penetration Rate: Estimates and Policy Implications, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif., 116 pp.; available online at <http://www.fema.gov/library/viewRecord.do?id=2599>.

Downton, M.W., J.Z. Barnard Miller, and R.A. Pielke Jr., 2005, Reanalysis of U.S. National Weather Service flood loss database, Natural Hazards Review, February, 13-22.

Einstein, H.H., 1988, Landslide risk assessment procedure, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Landslides, Lausanne, Switzerland, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 1075-1090.

EQE International, 2000, HAZUS Preview Model Methods and Data—Final Technical Report, Report to the National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C., 200 pp.

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FEMA, 1989, Analysis of the Costs and Benefits of Providing Technical Assistance to and Monitoring Compliance by NFIP Participating Communities: Working Draft, 39 pp.

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FEMA, 1997, Modernizing FEMA’s Flood Hazard Mapping Program: An Assessment of Benefits and Costs, 42 pp.



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References Ajami, N.K., Q.Y. Duan, and S. Sorooshian, 2007, An integrated Census Bureau, 2005, Table A1: Interim projection of the total hydrologic Bayesian multimodel combination framework: Con- population of the United States and states: April 1, 2000 to fronting input, parameter, and model structural uncertainty in July 1, 2030, Population Division, Interim State Population hydrologic prediction, Water Resources Research, 43, W01403, Projections; available online at . ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers), 2005a, Minimum Chivers, J., and N.E. Flores, 2002, Market failure in information: The National Flood Insurance Program, Land Economics, 78, Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE/SEI Standard 7-05, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, 515-521. Va., available on CD-ROM. Divoky, D., and D.T. Resio, 2008, Performance of the JPM ASCE, 2005b, Flood Resistant Design and Construction, ASCE and EST methods in storm surge studies, 13 pp.; available Standard 24-05, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, online at . Bernknopf, R.L., R. Campbell, and C. Shapiro, 1988, An economic Dixon, L., N. Clancy, S.A. Seabury, and A. Overton, 2006, The and geographic appraisal of a spatial natural hazard risk: A study National Flood Insurance Program’s Market Penetration Rate: of landslide mitigation rules, Environment and Planning A, 20, Estimates and Policy Implications, RAND Corporation, Santa 621-631. Monica, Calif., 116 pp.; available online at . quake and volcano notices: An economic evaluation of changes Downton, M.W., J.Z. Barnard Miller, and R.A. Pielke Jr., 2005, in risk perception, Journal of Environmental Economics and Reanalysis of U.S. National Weather Service flood loss database, Management, 18, 35-49. Natural Hazards Review, February, 13-22. Bernknopf, R.L., D.S. Brookshire, D.R. Soller, M.J. McKee, J.F. Einstein, H.H., 1988, Landslide risk assessment procedure, in Sutter, J.C. Matti, and R.H. Campbell, 1993, Societal Value of Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Landslides, Geologic Maps, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1111, Denver, Lausanne, Switzerland, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 1075- Colo., 53 pp. 1090. Bernknopf, R.L., D.S. Brookshire, M. McKee, and D.R. Soller, EQE International, 2000, HAZUS Preview Model Methods and 1997, Estimating the social value of geologic map information: Data—Final Technical Report, Report to the National Institute A regulatory application, Journal of Environmental Economics and of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C., 200 pp. Management, 32, 204-218. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), 1983, Flood Bin, O., and S. Polasky, 2004, Effects of flood hazards on property Insurance Study: Guidelines and Specifications for Study Contractors, values. Evidence before and after Hurricane Floyd, Land Eco- FEMA 37; available online at . Büchele, B., H. Kreibich, A. Kron, A. Thieken, J. Ihringer, P. FEMA, 1989, Analysis of the Costs and Benefits of Providing Tech- Oberle, B. Merz, and F. Nestmann, 2006, Flood-risk mapping: nical Assistance to and Monitoring Compliance by NFIP Partici- Contributions towards an enhanced assessment of extreme pating Communities: Working Draft, 39 pp. events and associated risks, Natural Hazards and Earth System FEMA, 1995, Managing Floodplain Development in Approximate Sciences, 6, 485-503. Zone A Areas: A Guide for Obtaining and Developing Base CDWR (California Department of Water Resources), 2005, Multi- (00-Year) Flood Elevations, FEMA 265; available online at . objective Approaches to Floodplain Management on a Watershed Basis: Natural Floodplain Functions and Societal Values; available FEMA, 1997, Modernizing FEMA’s Flood Hazard Mapping Pro- online at . 0

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0 MAPPING THE ZONE FEMA, 2000, Modernizing FEMA’s Flood Hazard Mapping Galloway, G.E., G.B. Baecher, D. Plasencia, K.G. Coulton, Program: An Updated Assessment of the Benefits and Costs, FEMA J. Louthain, M. Bagha, and A.R. Levy, 2006, Assessing the internal document, 7 pp. Adequacy of the National Flood Insurance Program’s  Percent Flood FEMA, 2001, What Is a Benefit? Guidance on Benefit-Cost Analysis Standard, Water Policy Collaborative, University of Maryland, of Hazard Mitigation Projects, Revision 2.0, Flood Insurance and College Park, 197 pp. Mitigation Administration, Washington, D.C., 82 pp. GAO (Government Accountability Office), 2004, Flood Map FEMA, 2002, National Flood Insurance Program: Program Modernization: Program Strategy Shows Promise, but Challenges description; available online at . Gesch, D.B., 2009, Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved FEMA, 2003, Guidelines and Specifications for Flood Hazard identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea level Mapping Partners; available online at . Hallstrom, D., and V.K. Smith, 2005, Market responses to hurri- canes, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 50, FEMA, 2004, Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety: Glossary of Terms, Interagency Committee on Dam Safety, Washington, D.C., 541-561. 28 pp.; available online at . Analysis of the National Map, U.S. Geological Survey Circular FEMA, 2005a, Design and Construction in Coastal A Zones, Hurri- 1271, Reston, Va., 49 pp. cane Katrina Recovery Advisory, 5 pp.; available online at Heinz Center, 2000, Evaluation of Erosion Hazards, a Collaborative . Project of the H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Econom- FEMA, 2005b, Evaluation of Alternatives in Obtaining Struc- ics and the Environment, Prepared for the Federal Emergency tural Elevation Data, prepared by Dewberry & Davis LLC, Management Agency, 205 pp.; available online at . bookmarks&view=Fit>. FEMA, 2006a, Flood Map Modernization, Mid-course Adjustment; Hodge, S.A., and G.D. Tasker, 1995, Magnitude and Frequency of available online at . Investigations Report 95-4224, Denver, Colo., 277 pp. FEMA, 2006b, Guidelines and Specifications for Flood Hazard Map- Holoway, J.M., and R. Burby, 1990, The effects of floodplain devel- opment controls on residential land values, Land Economics, 66, ping Partners, Final Draft, October 2006, FEMA Region VI, Washington, D.C., 360 pp. 259-270. FEMA, 2006c, Hurricane Katrina in the Gulf Coast, Mitigation IACWD (Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data), 1982, Assessment Team Report, Building Performance Observations, Guidelines for Determining Flood Flow Frequency, Bulletin 17B Recommendations, and Technical Guidance, FEMA 549, 584 (revised and corrected), U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va., 186 pp.; available online at . dl_flow.pdf>. FEMA, 2006d, Recommended Residential Construction for the Gulf IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2007, Coast: Building on Strong and Safe Foundations, FEMA 550, 261 Climate Change 00: Synthesis Report, Contribution of Work- pp.; available online at . of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Core FEMA, 2007a, Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico Coastal Guidelines Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri, and A. Reisinger, eds., Geneva, Update, 360 pp.; available online at . IPET (Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force), 2008, FEMA, 2007b, Guidance for Validating Flood Hazard Data: Flood Performance Evaluation of the New Orleans and Southeast Map Modernization, issued April 9, 2007, Washington, D.C., Louisiana Hurricane Protection System, Final Report, 9 volumes; 15 pp. available online at . FEMA, 2007c, Revised Procedure Memorandum 38— Jones, C., W. Coulbourne, and P. Tertell, 2001, Consideration of a Implementation of Floodplain Boundary Standard (Section 7 new flood hazard zone: Coastal A zone, in New Trends in Flood- of MHIP V 1.0), issued by Doug Bellomo, Risk Analysis Divi- plain Management, Association of State Floodplain Managers sion, on October 17, 2007. Conference Proceedings, Charlotte, N.C., pp. 21-25. FEMA, 2008a, FEMA’s Risk MAP Strategy—Integrating Mapping, Jones, C.P., W.L. Coulbourne, J. Marshall, and S.M. Rogers, Assessment, and Mitigation Planning, Draft Strategy, February Jr., 2006, Evaluation of the National Flood Insurance Program’s 20, 2008; available online at . available online at . Mapping in Sheltered Waters, Technical Memorandum, Febru- MacEachren, A.M., A. Robinson, S. Hopper, S. Gardner, R. Murray, ary 2008, 22 pp. M. Gahegan, and E. Hetzler, 2005, Visualizing geospatial infor- FEMA, 2008c, Multi-year Flood Hazard Identification Plan, version mation uncertainty: What we know and what we need to know, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 32, 139-160. 3, 24 pp.; available online at .

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0 REFERENCES Maune, D.F., ed., 2007, Digital Elevation Model Technologies and Sheng, Y.P., and V. Alymov, 2002, Coastal Flooding Analysis of Pinel- Applications: The DEM Users Manual, 2nd edition, American las County Using ALSM Data: A Comparison between UF’s -D Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, Method and Results vs. FEMA’s Method and Results, Final Report Md., 655 pp. for Pinellas County, Florida, Department of Civil and Coastal Maurstad, D., 2008, Levees, risk, and shared responsibility: The Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 67 pp. federal perspective, Annual Meeting of the National Associa- Smith, M.B., K.P. Georgakakos, and L. Xu, 2004, The distributed tion of Flood and Stormwater Management Agencies, Napa, model intercomparison project (DMIP), Journal of Hydrology, 298, 1-3. Calif., August. Merz, B., and A.H. Thieken, 2005, Separating natural and Smith, M.B., V.I. Koren, S.M. Reed, Z. Zhang, Y. 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Gupta, 1983, Automatic calibration of Practice, 12, 167-177. conceptual rainfall-runoff models—The question of parameter observability and uniqueness, Water Resources Research, 19, 260- NCFMP (North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program), 2008, Accomplishments, Lessons Learned, and Benefits, Raleigh, N.C., 268. in preparation; available online at . of maximum-likelihood parameter-estimation techniques for New York Department of Environmental Conservation, 1992, conceptual rainfall-runoff models—Influence of calibration data variability and length on model credibility, Water Resources Reducing the Impacts of Stormwater Runoff from New Develop- Research, 19, 251-259. ments, 178 pp.; available online at . Tasker, G.D., and R.M. Slade, Jr., 1994, An interactive regional NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), 2007, regression approach to estimating flood quantiles, in D.G. Fontane and H.N. 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0 MAPPING THE ZONE Yapo, P.O., H.V. Gupta, and S. Sorooshian, 1996, Automatic calibration of conceptual rainfall-runoff models: Sensitivity to calibration data, Journal of Hydrology, 181, 23-48. Yapo, P.O., H.V. Gupta, and S. Sorooshian, 1998, Multi-objective global optimization for hydrologic models, Journal of Hydrology, 204, 83-97.