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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Award No. HSFE03-06-C-0030 and by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Award No. DG133R07SE2691. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

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Cover: June 2008 flooding in Cedar Rapids, Iowa (foreground), and a portion of the FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Map in the same region (background). This part of the downtown is within the Special Flood Hazard Area (zone A), which is subject to a 1 percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year. Photograph courtesy of Stephen Mally. Used with permission. Map extract from FEMA’s Map Service Center. Cover design by Van Nguyen.

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