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Evaluation of the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence Letter Report Committee on the Evaluation of the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence Committee on Science, Technology, and Law Policy and Global Affairs THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 2006-8372 between the National Academy of Sciences and the William & Flora Hewlett Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. This report is available online at the National Academies Press at, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America 2
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org 3
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Committee on the Evaluation of the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence Margaret A. Berger (Co-chair), Suzanne J. and Norman Miles Professor of Law, Brooklyn Law School Channing Robertson (Co-chair), Ruth G. and William K. Bowes Professor, Dean of Faculty and Academic Affairs, and Professor Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Stanford University Joe S. Cecil, Project Director, Program on Scientific and Technical Evidence, Division of Research, Federal Judicial Center D. (David) Brock Hornby, Judge, U.S. District Court, District of Maine Jonathan Samet, Professor and Chairman, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Staff: Anne-Marie Mazza, Study Director Steven Kendall, Senior Program Associate Kathleen Magee, Program Associate (through September 2007) 4