proliferation or use. DOD provides equipment and services to destroy or dismantle intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), ICBM silo launchers, road and rail mobile launchers, submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), SLBM launchers, reactor cores of associated strategic nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, and WMD infrastructure. DOD also supports placement of spent fuel from naval nuclear reactors, referred to as Spent Naval Fuel, prior to its elimination, into casks designed for long-term storage as well as logistical and maintenance support for equipment.

Chemical Weapons Destruction (CWD) Program–Russia: In accordance with the CWD Implementing Agreement, DOD is assisting Russia with the safe, secure, and environmentally sound destruction of the most proliferable portion of its chemical weapons nerve-agent stockpile. The Chemical Weapons Destruction Facility and the former Chemical Weapons Production Facility demilitarization projects support this effort.

Strategic Nuclear Arms Elimination (SNAE) Program–Ukraine: CTR program assistance, consistent with the SNAE Implementing Agreement, includes elimination of Tu 22M Backfire and Tu-142 Bear nuclear-capable maritime patrol aircraft that are modifications of START-accountable heavy bombers, Kh 22 nuclear air-to-surface missiles, and strategic bomber trainers.

Weapons of Mass Destruction Infrastructure Elimination (WMDIE) Program–Ukraine: In accordance with the WMDIE Implementing Agreement, the Nuclear Weapons Storage Area project will eliminate infrastructure at sites formerly associated with nuclear weapons and warhead storage, operations, and maintenance that supported the forward-deployed nuclear weapons arsenals of the Soviet armed forces and assist in preventing the proliferation of associated design data, materials, equipment, and technologies.

Biological Threat Reduction Prevention (BTRP) Program–FSU: The BTRP program’s objectives are to reduce the risk of bioterrorism and prevent the proliferation of biological weapons technology, expertise, and extremely dangerous pathogens (EDPs). The United States has CTR implementing agreements with Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, to assist them in preventing the proliferation of biological weapons materials and expertise to rogue states and terrorist groups, increase transparency, encourage high standards of conduct by scientists, and preempt a “brain drain” of bio-related expertise. All BTRP projects in Russia fall under the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) Agreement and the ISTC Funding Memorandum of Agreement. The U.S.–Kazakhstan WMDIE Implementing Agreement covers BTRP projects in Kazakhstan. Biological Threat Reduction Implementing Agreements have been signed with Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. This program is executed through three projects, each of which serves a different objective of the CTR program:

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