tutes and scientists previously involved in biological weapons research to employ them in peaceful research focusing on investigating dangerous pathogens for prophylactic, preventive, or other peaceful purposes. By so engaging former biological weapons scientists, CBR helps to prevent the proliferation of biological weapons scientific expertise and preempt potential “brain drain” of scientists to rogue states; increase the transparency at biological institutes and encourage higher standards of openness, ethics, and conduct by scientists; provide the United States access to expertise that can enhance preparedness against biological threats; enable the transfer of EDPs to the United States for study to improve public health; and enable forensics reference research.


Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation Prevention Initiative (WMDPPI) Program–FSU, Except Russia: The WMD-PPI Program addresses the potential vulnerability of the non-Russian FSU states’ borders to smuggling of WMD and related components. WMD-PPI attempts to complement the CTR program’s traditional focus, WMD at its source, by addressing WMD on the move. Currently, DOD is helping Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan to develop and sustain capabilities to prevent the proliferation of WMD-related materials, components, and technologies across their borders. Agreements are made with the recipient states to have them report any WMD detections made with U.S. government-supplied equipment to the in-country U.S. embassy, for forwarding to the U.S. government.

Defense and Military Contacts (DMC): The DMC program was created in 1993 as a part of the larger CTR program and attempts to develop positive relationships between the defense, military, and security communities of the United States and FSU states. Bilateral activities are designed to engage the military and defense officials of FSU states in activities that promote demilitarization and defense reform, further proliferation prevention efforts, and endorse regional stability and cooperation. The program is developed by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, through the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Eurasia Policy, in close coordination with the Joint Staff, the Unified Combatant Commands, and the U.S. military services to ensure that scheduled events support the secretary of defense’s Security Cooperation Guidance and regional commands’ country and regional campaign plans.

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