cal Threat Reduction Program might be applied to developing countries. In response, a separate report has been prepared by the NRC, entitled Countering Biological Threats: The Important Role of the Department of Defense’s Nonproliferation Program Beyond the Former Soviet Union. A separate NRC committee was responsible for that report, which was released in February 2009. Although that report focuses specifically on issues in the biological field, there is some overlap with this report. The two reports are intended to be complementary, but each was produced independent of the other.


This study responds to the task set forth in the legislation and in the subsequent contract between NRC and DTRA (see Appendix A for full legislation):

  1. An assessment of new CTR initiatives to include at a minimum

    • Programs and projects in Asia and the Middle East; and

    • Activities relating to the denuclearization of the DPRK.

  1. An identification of options and recommendations for strengthening and expanding the CTR program.

New initiatives should

  • Be well coordinated with the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and any other relevant U.S. government agency or department;

  • Include appropriate transparency and accountability mechanisms, and legal frameworks and agreements between the United States and CTR partner countries;

  • Reflect engagement with nongovernmental experts on possible new options for the CTR program;

  • Include work with the Russian Federation and other countries to establish strong CTR partnerships that, among other things,

    • Increase the role of scientists and government officials of CTR partner countries in designing CTR programs and projects; and

    • Increase financial contributions and additional commitments to CTR programs and projects from Russia and other partner countries, as appropriate, as evidence that the programs and projects reflect national priorities and will be sustainable.

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