pregnant women, especially obese women, who experience low gain or weight loss during pregnancy. In addition, the committee recommends that researchers should conduct studies on the effects of weight loss or low GWG, including periods of prolonged fasting and the development of ketonuria/ketonemia during gestation, on growth and on development and long-term neurocognitive function in the offspring.

Areas for Additional Investigation

The committee identified the following areas for further investigation to support its research recommendation. The research community should conduct studies on:

  • Potential effects of maternal weight loss on components of maternal body composition for both the mother and the fetus, particularly in obese women; and

  • Mechanisms by which placental hormonal factors and systemic inflammation impact the regulation of maternal metabolism during pregnancy.

REFERENCES

Abramovich D. R.1969. The weight of placenta and membranes in early pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 76(6): 523-526.

Abrams B. F. and R. K. Laros, Jr. 1986. Prepregnancy weight, weight gain, and birth weight. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 154(3): 503-509.

Abrams B. and S. Selvin. 1995. Maternal weight gain pattern and birth weight. Obstetrics and Gynecology 86(2): 163-169.

Ananth C. V. and S. W. Wen. 2002. Trends in fetal growth among singleton gestations in the United States and Canada, 1985 through 1998. Seminars in Perinatology 26(4): 260-267.

Ananth C. V., A. M. Vintzileos, S. Shen-Schwarz, J. C. Smulian and Y. L. Lai. 1998. Standards of birth weight in twin gestations stratified by placental chorionicity. Obstetrics and Gynecology 91(6): 917-924.

Archie J. G., J. S. Collins and R. R. Lebel. 2006. Quantitative standards for fetal and neonatal autopsy. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 126(2): 256-265.

Ballew C. and J. D. Haas. 1986. Altitude differences in body composition among Bolivian newborns. Human Biology 58(6): 871-882.

Baumann M. U., S. Deborde and N. P. Illsley. 2002. Placental glucose transfer and fetal growth. Endocrine 19(1): 13-22.

Bernstein I. M., M. I. Goran, S. B. Amini and P. M. Catalano. 1997. Differential growth of fetal tissues during the second half of pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 176(1 Pt 1): 28-32.

Bianco A. T., S. W. Smilen, Y. Davis, S. Lopez, R. Lapinski and C. J. Lockwood. 1998. Pregnancy outcome and weight gain recommendations for the morbidly obese woman. Obstetrics and Gynecology 91(1): 97-102.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement