pregnant women, especially obese women, who experience low gain or weight loss during pregnancy. In addition, the committee recommends that researchers should conduct studies on the effects of weight loss or low GWG, including periods of prolonged fasting and the development of ketonuria/ketonemia during gestation, on growth and on development and long-term neurocognitive function in the offspring.

Areas for Additional Investigation

The committee identified the following areas for further investigation to support its research recommendation. The research community should conduct studies on:

  • Potential effects of maternal weight loss on components of maternal body composition for both the mother and the fetus, particularly in obese women; and

  • Mechanisms by which placental hormonal factors and systemic inflammation impact the regulation of maternal metabolism during pregnancy.


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