4
Determinants of Gestational Weight Gain

The total amount of weight gain during pregnancy is determined by many factors. Aside from physiological factors (discussed in Chapter 2); psychological, behavioral, family, social, cultural, and environmental factors can also have an impact on gestational weight gain (GWG). Understanding these factors as determinants of GWG is an important component of revising weight gain guidelines for women during pregnancy. Several conceptual models guided the committee’s consideration of determinants of GWG. The ecological perspective recognizes that health behavior such as GWG is influenced at multiple levels. Brofenbrenner (1979) identified multiple levels of environmental influence on health behavior in general:

  • The microsystem—face-to-face interactions in specific settings, such as family, school, or a peer group;

  • The mesosystem (a system of microsystems)—the interrelations among the various settings in which the individual is involved, such as that between the family and the workplace;

  • The exosystem—the larger social system in which the individual is embedded, such as the extended family or community; and

  • The macrosystem—cultural values and beliefs, such as cultural beliefs about GWG.

Other models that recognize the multiple determinants of health behavior or outcome include the health field model, which identifies multiple domains including the physical and social environments that exert influ-



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 111
4 Determinants of Gestational Weight Gain The total amount of weight gain during pregnancy is determined by many factors. Aside from physiological factors (discussed in Chapter 2); psychological, behavioral, family, social, cultural, and environmental fac- tors can also have an impact on gestational weight gain (GWG). Under- standing these factors as determinants of GWG is an important component of revising weight gain guidelines for women during pregnancy. Several conceptual models guided the committee’s consideration of determinants of GWG. The ecological perspective recognizes that health behavior such as GWG is influenced at multiple levels. Brofenbrenner (1979) identified multiple levels of environmental influence on health behavior in general: • The microsystem—face-to-face interactions in specific settings, such as family, school, or a peer group; • The mesosystem (a system of microsystems)—the interrelations among the various settings in which the individual is involved, such as that between the family and the workplace; • The exosystem—the larger social system in which the individual is embedded, such as the extended family or community; and • The macrosystem—cultural values and beliefs, such as cultural beliefs about GWG. Other models that recognize the multiple determinants of health be- havior or outcome include the health field model, which identifies multiple domains including the physical and social environments that exert influ- 

OCR for page 111
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY ences on health behavior and outcome, and the epidemiological model, which describes a triad of epidemiologic factors to model the complex and interrelated factors contributing to the increasing rate of obesity in the United States and other countries. One of the triad components describes an “obesogenic” environment as “the sum of influences that the surroundings, opportunities, or conditions of life have on promoting obesity in individuals or populations” (Swinburn and Egger, 2002). This obesogenic environment includes physical, economic, policy, and sociocultural factors that can influ- ence eating and physical activity behaviors. Collectively, these models place emphasis on how the health of individ- uals is influenced by not only physiological functioning and genetic predis- position, but by a complex interplay of these biological determinants with social and familial relationships, environmental influences, and broader social and economic contexts over the life course. They further suggest that intervention efforts to change health behavior or outcome, such as GWG, should address not only “downstream” individual-level phenomena (e.g., physiologic pathways to disease, individual and lifestyle factors) and “mainstream” factors (e.g., population-based interventions), but also “up- stream,” societal-level phenomena (e.g., public policies) (IOM, 2000). Another model, the life-course perspective (Kuh and Ben-Shlomo, 1997), perceives life not in disconnected stages, but as an integrated con- tinuum; it recognizes that each stage of life is influenced by the life stages that precede it, and it, in turn, influences the life stages that follow (see Chapter 6 for detailed discussion). Some of the most significant determinants of GWG at multiple levels (social/institutional, environmental, neighborhood/community, interpersonal/family, and individual levels) occur across the life course (Figure 4-1). The following discussion begins with a review of the evi- dence for a direct relationship between a given determinant (identified in Figure 1-1) and GWG. Where data are lacking, rationale are provided for why the committee thinks that it is potentially an important determinant that merits further research. The committee’s review of evidence (tabulated in Appendix D) included both epidemiologic and clinical studies. Inasmuch as this research discipline is focused largely on observational studies the committee recognized the need for proof of causality for determinants and outcomes significantly associated with GWG. SOCIETAL/INSTITUTIONAL DETERMINANTS The committee evaluated the evidence of the impact of four societal/ institutional determinants on GWG: media, culture and acculturation, health services (e.g., the type of advice that pregnant women receive about GWG), and policy. The committee recognized that understanding how these factors impact GWG, for example how cultural norms and beliefs may

OCR for page 111
 DETERMINANTS OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN SOCIAL/BUILT/NATURAL AND LIFE-STAGE ENVIRONMENT Societal/Institutional: media, culture and acculturation, health services, policy Environmental: altitude, environmental toxicants, natural and man-made disasters Neighborhood/Community: access to healthy foods, opportunities for physical activity Interpersonal/Family: family violence, marital status, partner and family support MATERNAL FACTORS Genetic characteristics Developmental programming Epigenetics Sociodemographic, e.g., age, race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, food insecurity Anthropometric and Physiological, e.g., prepregnancy BMI, hormonal milieu, basal metabolic rate Medical, e.g., pre-existing morbidities, hyperemesis gravidarum, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, bariatric surgery, multiple births Psychological, e.g., depression, stress, social support, attitude toward weight gain Behavioral, e.g., dietary intake, physical activity, substance abuse, unintended pregnancy ENERGY BALANCE/NUTRIENT Food, energy, nutrient intake TOTAL AND OVERALL PATTERN OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN indicates possible modification of effect indicated by arrow on which it abuts indicates possible causal influences FIGURE 4-1 Schematic summary of determinants associated with GWG. Figure 4-1.eps impact a woman’s eating habits during pregnancy, is necessary for develop- ing effective weight gain recommendations. Although the committee noted some plausible associations between each of these factors and GWG, the evidence is inconclusive and the contributions of these factors to GWG (and subsequent outcomes) unclear. Media The committee was unable to identify studies that specifically examined the media’s influence on GWG. From a life-course perspective, however, it is plausible that the media may exert influence on GWG by shaping eating and exercise habits that become established long before pregnancy. Several previous reports have documented the influence of advertising and market- ing on children’s food, beverage, and sedentary-pursuit choices in ways that can adversely affect energy balance (Kunkel, 2001; IOM, 2006). In an extensive systematic literature review, Hastings et al. (2003) concluded that food advertisements promote food purchase requests by children to parents, have an impact on children’s product and brand preferences, and

OCR for page 111
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY affect consumption behavior. Other studies have shown that the media can promote sedentary behaviors, such as television watching, that may adversely affect energy balance (Gortmaker et al., 1996, 1999; Robinson, 1999; IOM, 2005; Epstein et al., 2008). Poor eating habits and sedentary behaviors shaped during childhood and adolescence may be carried into young adulthood and continued into pregnancy, with the potential to affect GWG indirectly. Moreover, by influencing energy balance over the long run these habits and behaviors may also have an impact on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) as well as other biological determinants of GWG. Not all media influences are negative. Media can be used to convey consumer information and public health messages, such as those regarding youth smoking, and seat belt and child car seat use. However, social mar- keting programs that use the media to promote physical activity or healthy diet in adults, whether as part of a mass media-focused effort or a broader multi-component campaign, tend to produce mixed results. The most suc- cessful social marketing programs have had higher funding, have been bet- ter sustained, and were shaped by formative research (IOM, 2006). Culture and Acculturation Although it is plausible that cultural norms and beliefs may influence dietary behavior and physical activities, thereby affecting energy balance and GWG, the committee was unable to identify studies that examined specifically the effects of culture and acculturation factors on GWG. For example, it is widely believed by women of all ages, ethnic groups, and income and education levels that the consumption of certain foods marks a child before birth, which may then lead to certain food preferences and avoidances (IOM, 1992; King, 2000). As another example, most women know that low GWG will produce a small infant, which will be delivered more easily than a larger one. In some cultures this knowledge may encour- age women to “eat down” in late pregnancy in order to avoid a difficult birth (King, 2000). Acculturation, the process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another, is often associated with adop- tion of unhealthy behaviors, including food choices. Using nativity or dura- tion of residence in the United States as a proxy for acculturation, several studies have found greater rates of overweight and obesity among children and nonpregnant adults who are more acculturated, compared to their less acculturated counterparts (Lizarzaburu and Palinkas, 2002; Hubert et al., 2005; Hernandez-Valero et al., 2007; Fuentes-Afflick and Hessol, 2008). For example, in a population-based study of 462 mothers in California, Schaffer et al. (1998) found that in the 3 months before pregnancy, foreign- born Latinas had the lowest contribution of fat to total energy intake and the highest dietary intake of carbohydrate, cholesterol, fiber, grain products,

OCR for page 111
 DETERMINANTS OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN protein foods, folate, vitamin C, iron, and zinc, compared to the dietary intake of white non-Latinas and U.S.-born Latinas. Other researchers have also documented increased risk for adverse birth outcomes, including pre- term birth and low birth weight, among U.S.-born women compared to foreign-born women of the same ethnic origin (Ventura and Taffel, 1985; Scribner and Dwyer, 1989; Cabral et al., 1990; Kleinman et al., 1991; Rumbaut and Weeks, 1996; Singh and Yu, 1996; Fuentes-Afflick and Lurie, 1997; Jones and Bond, 1999; Callister and Birkhead, 2002; Baker and Hellerstedt, 2006). However, most of these studies do not report GWG, and so the contribution of GWG to adverse outcomes is unknown. Health Services Although many researchers have studied the impact of GWG advice on actual weight gains and although the U.S. Public Health Service Ex- pert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care recommended that pregnant women receive advice on gaining an appropriate amount of weight dur- ing pregnancy, the influence of weight gain advice on GWG has not been conclusively demonstrated (HHS, 1989). Several intervention studies have been conducted using nutrition advice alone (Orstead et al., 1985; Bruce and Tchabo, 1989) or such advice linked with home visits by nutritionists and supplemental food (Rush, 1981; Bruce and Tchabo, 1989), a nurse home visitation program (Olds et al., 1986), and the provision of prenatal care through multidisciplinary rather than traditional clinics (Morris et al., 1993). In three of the studies (Rush, 1981; Olds et al., 1986; Morris et al., 1993) the differences in mean GWG between intervention and control groups were not statistically significant. In two other studies (Orstead et al., 1985; Bruce and Tchabo, 1989) intervention groups gained significantly more weight than the control groups; however, the findings may be limited by gestational age bias. Additionally, most of these studies reported only mean GWG with no comparisons among different categories of pregravid BMI, further limiting interpretation of the findings. Brown et al. (1992) de- veloped a prenatal weight gain intervention program based on social mar- keting methods; while circumstances arose that hampered full evaluation of the program, preliminary evidence suggests that GWG and birth weight of African Americans in the intervention group did not differ significantly from those of whites, while both weight gain and birth weight were signifi- cantly lower in African Americans than in whites in the control group. Hickey (2000) identified several potential problems with the validity of previous studies on prenatal weight gain advice and actual GWG. These include, in addition to differences in pregravid nutritional status and BMI, issues such as self-selection bias, recall bias, differences in time during ges- tation when nutrition advice was given, variation in content and frequency of advice, the pairing of advice with other food or nonfood interventions,

OCR for page 111
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY individual and social characteristics of the provider as contrasted with those of the pregnant woman, and racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in weight gain advice. Policy For the purpose of this report, policy is defined broadly to include principles, guidelines, or plans adopted by an organization to guide deci- sions, actions, and other matters. An example of how policy can influence GWG is the weight gain recommendations from the report, Nutrition Dur- ing Pregnancy (IOM, 1990) and subsequent endorsement of the report’s recommendations and guidelines by obstetric organizations in the United States and many other countries. In some cases, it is not clear what type of advice is being provided. For example, in a 2005 cross-sectional survey mailed to 1,806 practicing mem- bers of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), more than 85 percent of the 900 respondents reported counseling their patients about GWG often or most of the time (ACOG, 2005). The survey did not, however, assess the respondents’ knowledge of the IOM (1990) guidelines or the content of counseling (Power et al., 2006). The few studies that have examined the advice given for GWG, how- ever, have shown that women often receive inconsistent or erroneous ad- vice. In a survey of approximately 2,300 women, Cogswell et al. (1999) reported that, of the 1,643 women who recalled weight gain advice, 14 percent reported being advised to gain less than the recommended levels, and 22 percent were advised to gain more and that provider advice to gain either below or above the recommended levels was associated with actual weight gain below the recommendations, respectively (both associations had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.6). So about one-third of women in this study reported receiving no advice or inappropriate advice from health pro- fessionals regarding GWG, and they followed that advice. Added to that, 27 percent of women reported receiving no advice about GWG. Altogether nearly two-thirds (63 percent) of women in this study reported receiving either inappropriate advice or no advice at all. Only 39 percent recalled receiving advice that fell within the IOM (1990) guidelines. In a more recent study, Stotland et al. (2005) found that 79 percent of the nearly 1,200 women reported a target GWG (i.e., how much weight women think they should gain during pregnancy) that fell within the IOM (1990) guidelines. The authors speculated that their figures were higher than those reported in Cogswell et al. (1999). Still, Stotland et al. (2005) found that one-third (33 percent) of women received no advice from health professionals regarding GWG, and less than half (49 percent) reported re- ceiving advice within guidelines.

OCR for page 111
 DETERMINANTS OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN Another example of policy influencing GWG is the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Rush et al. (1988) conducted a national evaluation of WIC programs and found that a reversal of low weight gain in early pregnancy and greater total weight gain during pregnancy occurred among women who enrolled in WIC compared with controls. They also found greater intake of protein, iron, calcium, vitamin C, and energy among WIC participants. However, subsequent evaluations (Joyce et al., 2008) have challenged these earlier findings and found more limited associations between WIC participation and GWG. Nonetheless, it is possible that policy that increases food access would have an impact on dietary pattern and GWG. Policy that does not directly affect pregnant women can also have an effect on GWG. Examples include policy recommendations to restrict food and beverage advertising and marketing to young children, to develop and implement nutritional standards for all competitive foods and beverages sold or served in schools, or to promote physical activity in schools (IOM, 2007). These policies can influence the development of children’s eating and exercise habits, which will be important later in life. ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS The committee examined three potential environmental determinants of GWG: exposure to high altitude, exposure to environmental toxicants, and exposure to a natural or human-caused disaster. Altitude Evidence that altitude effects GWG is inconsistent. Jensen and Moore (1997) examined the effect of high altitude on GWG and birth weight us- ing Colorado birth certificates and found no significant difference in GWG among women residing at 3,000 to 5,000 feet; 5,000 to 7,000 feet; 7,000 to 9,000 feet; and 9,000 to 11,000 feet; they did find, however, that mean birth weight, decreased with increasing altitude, a trend that was indepen- dent of GWG and not interactive with gestational age, parity, maternal smoking, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and other factors associated with birth weight (Jensen and Moore, 1997). Environmental Toxicants The committee was unable to identify studies that examined specifi- cally the effects of exposures to environmental toxicants on GWG. There is some evidence linking environmental contaminants such as organophos- phate and organochlorine compounds to fetal growth, but the evidence is

OCR for page 111
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY inconsistent (Dar et al., 1992; Wolff et al., 2007). Additional research may better define the relationships among environmental exposures, GWG, and fetal growth. Natural and Man-made Disasters The committee was unable to identify studies that examined specifi- cally the effects of natural or man-made disasters on GWG. However, it is plausible that disasters can affect GWG indirectly by influencing resource availability (including food supply), health care access, and stress levels (Callaghan et al., 2007). Several studies have documented the impact of disasters on pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth (Weissman et al., 1989; Cordero, 1993; Glynn et al., 2001; Lederman et al., 2004) and fetal growth restriction (Eskenazi et al., 2007; Landrigan et al., 2008); however, it remains unclear whether these adverse outcomes were caused by low GWG. NEIGHBORHOOD/COMMUNITY DETERMINANTS The committee considered two potential neighborhood/community de- terminants of GWG: access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity. Access to Healthy Foods Evidence for a direct influence of neighborhood or community factors, such as access to healthy foods, on GWG is lacking. However, because appropriate nutrient intake and weight gain during pregnancy requires a safe and adequate food supply, it is likely that women who live in areas where residents have poor accessibility to foods may be at increased risk for inadequate or inappropriate GWG and associated poor pregnancy outcomes. (See Chapter 2 for trends in dietary practices and Appendix B for supplemental information.) The committee identified only two relevant studies. Laraia et al. (2004) investigated associations between the distance of a supermarket from home and diet quality of pregnant women, measured by a Diet Quality Index (DQI). They found that women who lived more than 4 miles from a supermarket had a two-fold greater risk of falling into the lowest DQI quartile compared to women who lived ≤ 2 miles from a supermarket, but the authors also did not report on GWG. More recently, in a study of urban retail food markets and birth weight outcomes in up- state New York, Lane et al. (2008) found that pregnant women who lived in proximity to urban retail corner markets without fresh produce, dairy, and other healthy foods had significantly more low birth weight infants compared to women who had access to supermarkets where healthy foods

OCR for page 111
 DETERMINANTS OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN were available. These findings were independent of income level; however, the study did not report on GWG. Opportunities for Physical Activity Although a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the role of the built environment for populations at high risk for obesity (see Chapter 2 for trends in physical activity), only one study was identified that examined the relationship between neighborhood contexts and GWG. Laraia et al. (2007) conducted a study of neighborhood factors associated with physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy. They found that social spaces, defined as the presence of parks, sidewalks, and porches as well as the presence of people, including nonresidential visitors, was associated with decreased odds for inadequate or excessive GWG. The social spaces scale was also associated with decreased odds of living greater than 3 miles from a supermarket. These findings suggest that neighborhood environments can influence GWG by providing access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activities. INTERPERSONAL/FAMILY DETERMINANTS The committee considered three types of interpersonal/family factors and their potential impact on GWG: family violence, marital status, and partner and family support. Family Violence Several studies examined GWG in the context of family violence (Parker et al., 1994; McFarlane et al., 1996; Siega-Riz and Hobel, 1997; Moraes et al., 2006). In a clinic sample of 4,791 Hispanic women in Los Angeles, Siega-Riz and Hobel (1997) found that physical abuse was associated with a greater than threefold risk for inadequate GWG among obese and overweight women. Moraes et al. (2006) found in a study of 394 pregnant women in Brazil that those with the highest physical abuse score gained, on average, 3 to 4 kg less than women unexposed to intimate partner violence. Boy and Salihu (2004) conducted a systematic review and found that abused pregnant women had less GWG than non-abused women. These studies suggest an association between intimate partner violence and insufficient GWG. Marital Status Several studies have examined the relationship between marital status and GWG. Using 1992 U.S. national data, Kleinman et al. (1991) and

OCR for page 111
0 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY Ventura (1994), found that unmarried mothers were more likely than mar- ried mothers to gain less than 7.3 kg during pregnancy. Olsen and Strawder- man (2003) found in a cohort of 622 healthy adult women that 38 percent of married women had gained above the IOM (1990) guidelines, compared to 42 percent of women who were separated or divorced, and 48 percent of single women. They also found that 21 percent of married women had gained below the IOM (1990) guidelines, compared to 23 percent for single women and 29 percent for women who were separated or divorced. Thus married women were more likely to gain within the IOM (1990) recom- mended weight gain range than single or separated/divorced women. Partner and Family Support The committee identified only two studies pertaining to the relationship between partner support and GWG. In the first, Dipietro et al. (2003) ex- amined the influences of partner support on attitudes or behaviors toward GWG. In a cross-sectional study of 130 women with low-risk pregnancies, they found that partner support was associated with negative pregnancy body image, but not with attitudes or behaviors toward GWG. Siega-Riz and Hobel (1997) evaluated a clinic sample of 4,791 Hispanic women in Los Angeles and found that receiving financial support from the infant’s father was significantly associated with decreased risk of poor GWG for overweight and obese women, but not for underweight or normal weight women. Again, the committee only identified two studies pertaining to the influence of family support on GWG. In a sample of 99 pregnant ado- lescents, Stevens-Simon et al. (1993b) found that attitudes toward GWG were directly related to their perceived family support; negative weight gain attitudes were most common among heavier adolescents, depressed adoles- cents, and adolescents who did not perceive their families as supportive. In a study of 46 pregnant Mexican American adolescents, Gutierrez (1999) reported that the most powerful factors contributing to good food practices during pregnancy were maternal concern about the well-being of the infant, role of motherhood, and family support system; the investigators did not report on the contribution of family support to either GWG attitude or actual GWG. MATERNAL FACTORS The following discussion summarizes the committee’s review of the evidence on several different types of maternal factors and their potential impact on GWG. This evidence includes sociodemographic factors, such

OCR for page 111
 DETERMINANTS OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN as age and race/ethnicity; physiological factors, some of which are also discussed in depth elsewhere in this report, and genetic factors known to impact GWG and those that may impact GWG because of their known influence on birth weight; and developmental and epigenetic programming in the mother, which may influence how a woman responds later in life. Sociodemographic Factors Gestational Weight Gain in Adolescents Adolescent pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of pre- term delivery, low birth weight, SGA births, and increased risk of neonatal mortality, although reported risk associations vary (Chen et al., 2007). To reduce these risks, the IOM (1990) report recommended that pregnant adolescents gain weight within the ranges for adult women unless they were under 16 years of age or less than 2 years post-menarche. In either of these cases, adolescents were encouraged to gain at the upper limits of the GWG guidelines for their prepregnancy BMI category. The youngest adolescents as well as somewhat older adolescents who conceive soon after menarche may still be growing themselves (Scholl and Hediger, 1993). Even girls who become pregnant for a second time during adolescence may still be growing. Scholl et al. (1990) showed that ado- lescents who were still growing during a first pregnancy delivered infants whose birth weight did not differ from those who were not growing. This was not true among adolescents who were still growing during a second pregnancy; their infants were significantly lighter at birth than those who were not growing themselves. The possibility of a competition for nutri- ents between the still-growing adolescent gravida and her fetus has been advanced as an argument for recommending relatively higher gains for at least some pregnant adolescents. What has been found instead is that still- growing adolescents are not mobilizing their fat gain during pregnancy to enhance fetal growth but, rather, are supporting the continued development of their own fat stores (Scholl et al., 1994). In a retrospective review of natality data from 2000, Howie et al. (2003) reported an increased likelihood for excessive GWG among ado- lescents compared to older women. Other authors have corroborated that younger adolescents have a higher GWG compared to older adolescents and adults, but whether the infant benefits from this greater weight gain is not yet clear (Hediger et al., 1990; Scholl et al., 1990; Stevens-Simon et al., 1993a). This is in part because—as is also the case for adult women—in- creases in GWG not only reduce the risk of delivering a low birth weight infant but also increase the risk of delivering a macrosomic infant (Scholl

OCR for page 111
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY Frongillo E. A., Jr., B. S. Rauschenbach, C. M. Olson, A. Kendall and A. G. Colmenares. 1997. Questionnaire-based measures are valid for the identification of rural households with hunger and food insecurity. Journal of Nutrition 127(5): 699-705. Fuentes-Afflick E. and N. A. Hessol. 2008. Acculturation and body mass among Latina women. Journal of Women’s Health (Larchmt) 17(1): 67-73. Fuentes-Afflick E. and P. Lurie. 1997. Low birth weight and Latino ethnicity. Examining the epidemiologic paradox. Archies of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 151(7): 665-674. Furneaux E. C., A. J. Langley-Evans and S. C. Langley-Evans. 2001. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: endocrine basis and contribution to pregnancy outcome. Obstetrical and Gynecological Surey 56(12): 775-782. Furuno J. P., L. Gallicchio and M. Sexton. 2004. Cigarette smoking and low maternal weight gain in Medicaid-eligible pregnant women. Journal of Women’s Health (Larchmt) 13(7): 770-777. Garn S. M., K. Hoff and K. D. McCabe. 1979. Is there nutritional mediation of the “smoking effect” on the fetus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32(6): 1181-1184. Gavard J. A. and R. Artal. 2008. Effect of exercise on pregnancy outcome. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 51(2): 467-480. Gigante D. P., K. M. Rasmussen and C. G. Victora. 2005. Pregnancy increases BMI in adoles- cents of a population-based birth cohort. Journal of Nutrition 135(1): 74-80. Glynn L. M., P. D. Wadhwa, C. Dunkel-Schetter, A. Chicz-Demet and C. A. Sandman. 2001. When stress happens matters: effects of earthquake timing on stress responsivity in preg- nancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 184(4): 637-642. Goldberg G. R., A. M. Prentice, W. A. Coward, H. L. Davies, P. R. Murgatroyd, C. Wensing, A. E. Black, M. Harding and M. Sawyer. 1993. Longitudinal assessment of energy expen- diture in pregnancy by the doubly labeled water method. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57(4): 494-505. Goodwin T. M. 2002. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: an obstetric syndrome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 186(5 Suppl Understanding): S184-S189. Goodwin T. M., M. Montoro and J. H. Mestman. 1992. Transient hyperthyroidism and hyperemesis gravidarum: clinical aspects. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecol- ogy 167(3): 648-652. Gortmaker S. L., A. Must, A. M. Sobol, K. Peterson, G. A. Colditz and W. H. Dietz. 1996. Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986-1990. Archies of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 150(4): 356-362. Gortmaker S. L., K. Peterson, J. Wiecha, A. M. Sobol, S. Dixit, M. K. Fox and N. Laird. 1999. Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health. Archies of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 153(4): 409-418. Graham K., A. Feigenbaum, A. Pastuszak, I. Nulman, R. Weksberg, T. Einarson, S. Goldberg, S. Ashby and G. Koren. 1992. Pregnancy outcome and infant development following gestational cocaine use by social cocaine users in Toronto, Canada. Clinical and Inesti- gatie Medicine. Medicine Clinique et Experimentale 15(4): 384-394. Griffiths L. J., C. Dezateux and T. J. Cole. 2007. Differential parental weight and height contributions to offspring birthweight and weight gain in infancy. International Journal of Epidemiology 36(1): 104-107. Gross S., C. Librach and A. Cecutti. 1989. Maternal weight loss associated with hyperemesis gravidarum: a predictor of fetal outcome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecol- ogy 160(4): 906-909. Gross T., R. J. Sokol and K. C. King. 1980. Obesity in pregnancy: risks and outcome. Obstet- rics and Gynecology 56(4): 446-450.

OCR for page 111
 DETERMINANTS OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN Groth S. W. 2008. The long-term impact of adolescent gestational weight gain. Research in Nursing and Health 31(2): 108-118. Gunderson E. P., R. Striegel-Moore, G. Schreiber, M. Hudes, F. Biro, S. Daniels and P. B. Crawford. 2009. Longitudinal study of growth and adiposity in parous compared with nulligravid adolescents. Archies of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 163(4): 349-356. Gurewitsch E. D., M. Smith-Levitin and J. Mack. 1996. Pregnancy following gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Obstetrics and Gynecology 88(4 Pt 2): 658-661. Gutierrez Y. M. 1999. Cultural factors affecting diet and pregnancy outcome of Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 25(3): 227-237. Haakstad L. A., N. Voldner, T. Henriksen and K. Bo. 2007. Physical activity level and weight gain in a cohort of pregnant Norwegian women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scan- dinaica 86(5): 559-564. Haas D. M. and L. A. Pazdernik. 2006. A cross-sectional survey of stressors for postpar- tum women during wartime in a military medical facility. Military Medicine 171(10): 1020-1023. Haiek L. and S. A. Lederman. 1989. The relationship between maternal weight for height and term birth weight in teens and adult women. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 10(1): 16-22. Hanson J. W., A. P. Streissguth and D. W. Smith. 1978. The effects of moderate alcohol con- sumption during pregnancy on fetal growth and morphogenesis. Journal of Pediatrics 92(3): 457-460. Hastings G., M. Stead, L. McDermot, A. Forsyth, A. MacKintosh, M. Rayner, C. Godfrey, M. Caraher and K. Angus. 2003. Reiew of Research on the Effects of Food Promotion to Children. Glasgow, UK: Centre for Social Marketing. Hattersley A. T., F. Beards, E. Ballantyne, M. Appleton, R. Harvey and S. Ellard. 1998. Muta- tions in the glucokinase gene of the fetus result in reduced birth weight. Nature Genetics 19(3): 268-270. Hauguel-de Mouzon S., J. Lepercq and P. Catalano. 2006. The known and unknown of leptin in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 194(6): 1537-1545. Haworth J. C., J. J. Ellestad-Sayed, J. King and L. A. Dilling. 1980. Relation of maternal cigarette smoking, obesity, and energy consumption to infant size. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 138(8): 1185-1189. Hediger M. L., T. O. Scholl, I. G. Ances, D. H. Belsky and R. W. Salmon. 1990. Rate and amount of weight gain during adolescent pregnancy: associations with maternal weight- for-height and birth weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(5): 793-799. Hegaard H. K., B. K. Pedersen, B. B. Nielsen and P. Damm. 2007. Leisure time physical activ- ity during pregnancy and impact on gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and birth weight: a review. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinaica 86(11): 1290-1296. Hernandez-Valero M. A., A. V. Wilkinson, M. R. Forman, C. J. Etzel, Y. Cao, C. H. Barcenas, S. S. Strom, M. R. Spitz and M. L. Bondy. 2007. Maternal BMI and country of birth as indicators of childhood obesity in children of Mexican origin. Obesity (Siler Spring) 15(10): 2512-2519. HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 1989. Caring for Our Future: The Content of Prenatal Care. A Report of the Public Health Service Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care. Washington, DC: U.S. Public Health Service. HHS. 2008. Physical Actiity Guidelines Adisory Committee Report. Washington, DC: Author. Hickey C. A. 2000. Sociocultural and behavioral influences on weight gain during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(5 Suppl): 1364S-1370S.

OCR for page 111
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY Hickey C. A., S. P. Cliver, R. L. Goldenberg, S. F. McNeal and H. J. Hoffman. 1995. Relation- ship of psychosocial status to low prenatal weight gain among nonobese black and white women delivering at term. Obstetrics and Gynecology 86(2): 177-183. Hickey C. A., S. P. Cliver, R. L. Goldenberg, S. F. McNeal and H. J. Hoffman. 1997. Low prenatal weight gain among low-income women: what are the risk factors? Birth 24(2): 102-108. Highman T. J., J. E. Friedman, L. P. Huston, W. W. Wong and P. M. Catalano. 1998. Longi- tudinal changes in maternal serum leptin concentrations, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 178(5): 1010-1015. Hill J. O., W. H. Saris and J. A. Levine. 2004. Energy Expenditure in Physical Activity. In Handbook of Obesity: Etiology and Pathophysiology, nd Ed. G. A. Bray and C. Bouchard. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. Hinton P. S. and C. M. Olson. 2001. Predictors of pregnancy-associated change in physical activity in a rural white population. Maternal and Child Health Journal 5(1): 7-14. Horon I. L., D. M. Strobino and H. M. MacDonald. 1983. Birth weights among infants born to adolescent and young adult women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 146(4): 444-449. Howie L. D., J. D. Parker and K. C. Schoendorf. 2003. Excessive maternal weight gain pat- terns in adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103(12): 1653-1657. Hubert H. B., J. Snider and M. A. Winkleby. 2005. Health status, health behaviors, and ac- culturation factors associated with overweight and obesity in Latinos from a community and agricultural labor camp survey. Preentie Medicine 40(6): 642-651. Hytten F. and G. Chamberlain. 1991. Clinical Physiology in Obstetrics. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. International Dietary Energy Consulting Group. 1990. The Doubly-Labeled Water Method for Measuring Energy Expenditure: Technical Recommendations for Use in Humans. Vienna: NAHRES-4 International Atomic Energy Agency. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1990. Nutrition During Pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1992. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: An Implementation Guide. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000. Promoting Health: Interention Strategies from Social and Behaioral Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2005. Preenting Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2006. Food Marketing to Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Acad- emies Press. IOM. 2007. Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools: Leading the Way Toward Healthier Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Jacobson J. L., S. W. Jacobson, R. J. Sokol, S. S. Martier, J. W. Ager and S. Shankaran. 1994. Effects of alcohol use, smoking, and illicit drug use on fetal growth in black infants. Journal of Pediatrics 124(5 Pt 1): 757-764. Jaquet D., S. Swaminathan, G. R. Alexander, P. Czernichow, D. Collin, H. M. Salihu, R. S. Kirby and C. Levy-Marchal. 2005. Significant paternal contribution to the risk of small for gestational age. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 112(2): 153-159. Jensen G. M. and L. G. Moore. 1997. The effect of high altitude and other risk factors on birthweight: independent or interactive effects? American Journal of Public Health 87(6): 1003-1007. Jewell D. and G. Young. 2003. Interentions for Nausea and Vomiting in Early Pregnancy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

OCR for page 111
 DETERMINANTS OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN Jones M. E. and M. L. Bond. 1999. Predictors of birth outcome among Hispanic immigrant women. Journal of Nursing Care Quality 14(1): 56-62. Jones S. J. and E. A. Frongillo. 2007. Food insecurity and subsequent weight gain in women. Public Health Nutrition 10(2): 145-151. Joseph K. S., A. C. Allen, L. Dodds, L. A. Turner, H. Scott and R. Liston. 2005. The perinatal effects of delayed childbearing. Obstetrics and Gynecology 105(6): 1410-1418. Joyce T., A. Racine and C. Yunzal-Butler. 2008. Reassessing the WIC effect: evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 27(2): 277-303. King J. C. 2000. Physiology of pregnancy and nutrient metabolism. American Journal of Clini- cal Nutrition 71(5 Suppl): 1218S-1225S. Kirwan J. P., S. Hauguel-De Mouzon, J. Lepercq, J. C. Challier, L. Huston-Presley, J. E. Friedman, S. C. Kalhan and P. M. Catalano. 2002. TNF-alpha is a predictor of insulin resistance in human pregnancy. Diabetes 51(7): 2207-2213. Kleinman J. C., L. A. Fingerhut and K. Prager. 1991. Differences in infant mortality by race, nativity status, and other maternal characteristics. American Journal of Diseases of Children 145(2): 194-199. Kost K., D. J. Landry and J. E. Darroch. 1998. The effects of pregnancy planning status on birth outcomes and infant care. Family Planning Perspecties 30(5): 223-230. Kouba S., T. Hallstrom, C. Lindholm and A. L. Hirschberg. 2005. Pregnancy and neo- natal outcomes in women with eating disorders. Obstetrics and Gynecology 105(2): 255-260. Kramer M. S. and R. Kakuma. 2003. Energy and protein intake in pregnancy. Cochrane Da- tabase of Systematic Reiews (4): CD000032. Kramer M. S. and S. W. McDonald. 2006. Aerobic exercise for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reiews (3): CD000180. Kuh D. and Y. Ben-Shlomo. 1997. A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology: Tracing the Origins of Ill-health from Early to Adult Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kunkel K. 2001. Children and Television Advertising. In Handbook of Children and the Me- dia. D. Singer and J. Singer. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing. Lagiou P., R. M. Tamimi, L. A. Mucci, H. O. Adami, C. C. Hsieh and D. Trichopoulos. 2004. Diet during pregnancy in relation to maternal weight gain and birth size. European Jour- nal of Clinical Nutrition 58(2): 231-237. Landrigan P. J., J. Forman, M. Galvez, B. Newman, S. M. Engel and C. Chemtob. 2008. Impact of September 11 World Trade Center disaster on children and pregnant women. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 75(2): 129-134. Lane S. D., R. H. Keefe, R. Rubinstein, B. A. Levandowski, N. Webster, D. A. Cibula, A. K. Boahene, O. Dele-Michael, D. Carter, T. Jones, M. Wojtowycz and J. Brill. 2008. Structural violence, urban retail food markets, and low birth weight. Health & Place 14(3): 415-423. Laraia B. A., A. M. Siega-Riz, J. S. Kaufman and S. J. Jones. 2004. Proximity of supermarkets is positively associated with diet quality index for pregnancy. Preentie Medicine 39(5): 869-875. Laraia B., L. Messer, K. Evenson and J. S. Kaufman. 2007. Neighborhood factors associated with physical activity and adequacy of weight gain during pregnancy. Journal of Urban Health 84(6): 793-806. Lawrence M., J. Singh, F. Lawrence and R. G. Whitehead. 1985. The energy cost of common daily activities in African women: increased expenditure in pregnancy? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42(5): 753-763.

OCR for page 111
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY Lederman S. A., V. Rauh, L. Weiss, J. L. Stein, L. A. Hoepner, M. Becker and F. P. Perera. 2004. The effects of the World Trade Center event on birth outcomes among term deliv- eries at three lower Manhattan hospitals. Enironmental Health Perspecties 112(17): 1772-1778. Leet T. and L. Flick. 2003. Effect of exercise on birthweight. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecol- ogy 46(2): 423-431. Lindsay R. S., S. Kobes, W. C. Knowler and R. L. Hanson. 2002. Genome-wide linkage analy- sis assessing parent-of-origin effects in the inheritance of birth weight. Human Genetics 110(5): 503-509. Little R. E., R. L. Asker, P. D. Sampson and J. H. Renwick. 1986. Fetal growth and moderate drinking in early pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology 123(2): 270-278. Lizarzaburu J. L. and L. A. Palinkas. 2002. Immigration, acculturation, and risk factors for obesity and cardiovascular disease: a comparison between Latinos of Peruvian descent in Peru and in the United States. Ethnicity and Disease 12(3): 342-352. Lof M., L. Hilakivi-Clarke, S. Sandin and E. Weiderpass. 2008. Effects of pre-pregnancy physical activity and maternal BMI on gestational weight gain and birth weight. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinaica 87(5): 524-530. Lokey E. A., Z. V. Tran, C. L. Wells, B. C. Myers and A. C. Tran. 1991. Effects of physical exercise on pregnancy outcomes: a meta-analytic review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 23(11): 1234-1239. Lopez-Bermejo A., C. J. Petry, M. Diaz, G. Sebastiani, F. de Zegher, D. B. Dunger and L. Ibanez. 2008. The association between the FTO gene and fat mass in humans develops by the postnatal age of two weeks. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 93(4): 1501-1505. Loris P., K. G. Dewey and K. Poirier-Brode. 1985. Weight gain and dietary intake of pregnant teenagers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 85(10): 1296-1305. Lunde A., K. K. Melve, H. K. Gjessing, R. Skjaerven and L. M. Irgens. 2007. Genetic and en- vironmental influences on birth weight, birth length, head circumference, and gestational age by use of population-based parent-offspring data. American Journal of Epidemiology 165(7): 734-741. Magann E. F. and T. E. Nolan. 1991. Pregnancy outcome in an active-duty population. Ob- stetrics and Gynecology 78(3 Pt 1): 391-393. Magnus P., H. K. Gjessing, A. Skrondal and R. Skjaerven. 2001. Paternal contribution to birth weight. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 55(12): 873-877. Marceau P., D. Kaufman, S. Biron, F. S. Hould, S. Lebel, S. Marceau and J. G. Kral. 2004. Out- come of pregnancies after biliopancreatic diversion. Obesity Surgery 14(3): 318-324. Marsiglio W. and F. L. Mott. 1988. Does wanting to become pregnant with a first child affect subsequent maternal behaviors and infant birth weight? Journal of Marriage and the Family 50(4): 1023-1036. Martin S. L., H. Kim, L. L. Kupper, R. E. Meyer and M. Hays. 1997a. Is incarceration dur- ing pregnancy associated with infant birthweight? American Journal of Public Health 87(9): 1526-1531. Martin S. L., R. H. Rieger, L. L. Kupper, R. E. Meyer and B. F. Qaqish. 1997b. The effect of incarceration during pregnancy on birth outcomes. Public Health Reports 112(4): 340-346. McAnarney E. R. and C. Stevens-Simon. 1993. First, do no harm. Low birth weight and ado- lescent obesity. American Journal of Diseases of Children 147(9): 983-985. McCarthy M. I. and A. T. Hattersley. 2008. Learning from molecular genetics: novel insights arising from the definition of genes for monogenic and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 57(11): 2889-2898.

OCR for page 111
 DETERMINANTS OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN McFarlane J., B. Parker and K. Soeken. 1996. Abuse during pregnancy: associations with maternal health and infant birth weight. Nursing Research 45(1): 37-42. Meserole L. P., B. S. Worthington-Roberts, J. M. Rees and L. S. Wright. 1984. Prenatal weight gain and postpartum weight loss patterns in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 5(1): 21-27. Moraes C. L., A. R. Amorim and M. E. Reichenheim. 2006. Gestational weight gain differen- tials in the presence of intimate partner violence. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 95(3): 254-260. Morris D. L., A. B. Berenson, J. Lawson and C. M. Wiemann. 1993. Comparison of adolescent pregnancy outcomes by prenatal care source. Journal of Reproductie Medicine 38(5): 375-380. Morris S. N. and N. R. Johnson. 2005. Exercise during pregnancy: a critical appraisal of the literature. Journal of Reproductie Medicine 50(3): 181-188. Muscati S., M. Mackey and B. Newsome. 1988. The influence of smoking and stress on prenatal weight gain and infant birth weight of teenage mothers. Journal of Nutrition Education 20: 299-302. Nielsen J. N., K. O. O’Brien, F. R. Witter, S. C. Chang, J. Mancini, M. S. Nathanson and L. E. Caulfield. 2006. High gestational weight gain does not improve birth weight in a cohort of African American adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84(1): 183-189. O’Boyle A. L., E. F. Magann, R. E. Ricks, Jr., M. Doyle and J. C. Morrison. 2005. Depression screening in the pregnant soldier wellness program. Southern Medical Journal 98(4): 416-418. Ogunyemi D. and G. E. Hernandez-Loera. 2004. The impact of antenatal cocaine use on maternal characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 15(4): 253-259. Ohlin A. and S. Rossner. 1994. Trends in eating patterns, physical activity and socio- demographic factors in relation to postpartum body weight development. British Journal of Nutrition 71(4): 457-470. Okereke N. C., L. Huston-Presley, S. B. Amini, S. Kalhan and P. M. Catalano. 2004. Lon- gitudinal changes in energy expenditure and body composition in obese women with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism 287(3): E472-E479. Olafsdottir A. S., G. V. Skuladottir, I. Thorsdottir, A. Hauksson and L. Steingrimsdottir. 2006. Maternal diet in early and late pregnancy in relation to weight gain. International Journal of Obesity (London) 30(3): 492-499. Olds D. L., C. R. Henderson, Jr., R. Tatelbaum and R. Chamberlin. 1986. Improving the delivery of prenatal care and outcomes of pregnancy: a randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics 77(1): 16-28. Olson C. M. 1999. Nutrition and health outcomes associated with food insecurity and hunger. Journal of Nutrition 129(2S Suppl): 521S-524S. Olson C. M. and M. S. Strawderman. 2003. Modifiable behavioral factors in a biopsycho- social model predict inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103(1): 48-54. Olson C. M. and M. S. Strawderman. 2008. The relationship between food insecurity and obesity in rural childbearing women. Journal of Rural Health 24(1): 60-66. Orr S. T., S. A. James, C. A. Miller, B. Barakat, N. Daikoku, M. Pupkin, K. Engstrom and G. Huggins. 1996. Psychosocial stressors and low birthweight in an urban population. American Journal of Preentie Medicine 12(6): 459-466.

OCR for page 111
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY Orstead C., D. Arrington, S. K. Kamath, R. Olson and M. B. Kohrs. 1985. Efficacy of prenatal nutrition counseling: weight gain, infant birth weight, and cost-effectiveness. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 85(1): 40-45. Palmer J. L., G. E. Jennings and L. Massey. 1985. Development of an assessment form: atti- tude toward weight gain during pregnancy. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 85(8): 946-949. Papoz L., E. Eschwege, G. Pequignot, J. Barrat and D. Schwartz. 1982. Maternal smoking and birth weight in relation to dietary habits. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecol- ogy 142(7): 870-876. Parker B., J. McFarlane and K. Soeken. 1994. Abuse during pregnancy: effects on maternal complications and birth weight in adult and teenage women. Obstetrics and Gynecology 84(3): 323-328. Pasquali R., V. Vicennati, M. Cacciari and U. Pagotto. 2006. The hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis activity in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1083: 111-128. Pearson E. R., S. F. Boj, A. M. Steele, T. Barrett, K. Stals, J. P. Shield, S. Ellard, J. Ferrer and A. T. Hattersley. 2007. Macrosomia and hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia in patients with heterozygous mutations in the HNF4A gene. Public Library of Science Medicine 4(4): e118. Picone T. A., L. H. Allen, M. M. Schramm and P. N. Olsen. 1982. Pregnancy outcome in North American women. I. Effects of diet, cigarette smoking, and psychological stress on maternal weight gain. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36(6): 1205-1213. Pinar H., S. Basu, K. Hotmire, L. Laffineuse, L. Presley, M. Carpenter, P. M. Catalano and S. Hauguel-de Mouzon. 2008. High molecular mass multimer complexes and vascular expression contribute to high adiponectin in the fetus. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 93(7): 2885-2890. Polivy J. 1996. Psychological consequences of food restriction. Journal of the American Di- etetic Association 96(6): 589-592; quiz 593-594. Power M. L., M. E. Cogswell and J. Schulkin. 2006. Obesity prevention and treatment prac- tices of U.S. obstetrician-gynecologists. Obstetrics and Gynecology 108(4): 961-968. Prentice A. M., G. R. Goldberg, H. L. Davies, P. R. Murgatroyd and W. Scott. 1989. Energy- sparing adaptations in human pregnancy assessed by whole-body calorimetry. British Journal of Nutrition 62(1): 5-22. Prisco F., D. Iafusco, A. Franzese, N. Sulli and F. Barbetti. 2000. MODY 2 presenting as neonatal hyperglycaemia: a need to reshape the definition of “neonatal diabetes”? Dia- betologia 43(10): 1331-1332. Prysak M., R. P. Lorenz and A. Kisly. 1995. Pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women 35 years and older. Obstetrics and Gynecology 85(1): 65-70. Reddy U. M., C. W. Ko and M. Willinger. 2006. Maternal age and the risk of stillbirth throughout pregnancy in the United States. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gyne- cology 195(3): 764-770. Reed M. M., J. M. Westfall, C. Bublitz, C. Battaglia and A. Fickenscher. 2005. Birth outcomes in Colorado’s undocumented immigrant population. BMC Public Health 5: 100. Retnakaran R., A. J. Hanley, N. Raif, P. W. Connelly, M. Sermer and B. Zinman. 2004. Re- duced adiponectin concentration in women with gestational diabetes: a potential factor in progression to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 27(3): 799-800. Robinson T. N. 1999. Reducing children’s television viewing to prevent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 282(16): 1561-1567. Robson E. 1978. The Genetics of Birth Weight. In Human Growth, Volume  Principles and Prenatal Growth. F. Falkner and J. Tanner. London: Baillière Tindall; pp. 285-297.

OCR for page 111
 DETERMINANTS OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN Rumbaut R. G. and J. R. Weeks. 1996. Unraveling a public health enigma: why do immigrants experience superior perinatal health outcomes? Research in the Sociology of Health Care 13: 335-388. Rush D. 1974. Examination of the relationship between birthweight, cigarette smoking dur- ing pregnancy and maternal weight gain. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 81(10): 746-752. Rush D. 1981. Nutritional services during pregnancy and birthweight: a retrospective matched pair analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal 125(6): 567-576. Rush D., D. G. Horvitz, W. B. Seaver, J. Leighton, N. L. Sloan, S. S. Johnson, R. A. Kulka, J. W. Devore, M. Holt, J. T. Lynch and et al. 1988. The National WIC Evaluation: evalu- ation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children. IV. Study methodology and sample characteristics in the longitudinal study of pregnant women, the study of children, and the food expenditures study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48(2 Suppl): 429-438. Safyer S. M. and L. Richmond. 1995. Pregnancy behind bars. Seminars in Perinatology 19(4): 314-322. Santry H. P., D. L. Gillen and D. S. Lauderdale. 2005. Trends in bariatric surgical procedures. Journal of the American Medical Association 294(15): 1909-1917. Sapolsky R. M. 1995. Social subordinance as a marker of hypercortisolism. Some unexpected subtleties. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 771: 626-639. Schaffer D. M., E. M. Velie, G. M. Shaw and K. P. Todoroff. 1998. Energy and nutrient intakes and health practices of Latinas and white non-Latinas in the 3 months before pregnancy. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 98(8): 876-884. Scholl T. O. and M. L. Hediger. 1993. A review of the epidemiology of nutrition and adoles- cent pregnancy: maternal growth during pregnancy and its effect on the fetus. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 12(2): 101-107. Scholl T. O., R. W. Salmon, L. K. Miller, P. Vasilenko, 3rd, C. H. Furey and M. Christine. 1988. Weight gain during adolescent pregnancy. Associated maternal characteristics and effects on birth weight. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 9(4): 286-290. Scholl T. O., M. L. Hediger, I. G. Ances, D. H. Belsky and R. W. Salmon. 1990. Weight gain during pregnancy in adolescence: predictive ability of early weight gain. Obstetrics and Gynecology 75(6): 948-953. Scholl T. O., M. L. Hediger, J. I. Schall, C. S. Khoo and R. L. Fischer. 1994. Maternal growth during pregnancy and the competition for nutrients. American Journal of Clinical Nutri- tion 60(2): 183-188. Scribner R. and J. H. Dwyer. 1989. Acculturation and low birthweight among Latinos in the Hispanic HANES. American Journal of Public Health 79(9): 1263-1267. Secker-Walker R. H. and P. M. Vacek. 2003. Relationships between cigarette smoking dur- ing pregnancy, gestational age, maternal weight gain, and infant birthweight. Addictie Behaiors 28(1): 55-66. Seckl J. R. 1998. Physiologic programming of the fetus. Clinics in Perinatology 25(4): 939- 962, vii. Siega-Riz A. M. and C. J. Hobel. 1997. Predictors of poor maternal weight gain from baseline anthropometric, psychosocial, and demographic information in a Hispanic population. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97(11): 1264-1268. Siega-Riz A. M., K. R. Evenson and N. Dole. 2004. Pregnancy-related weight gain—a link to obesity? Nutrition Reiews 62(7 Pt 2): S105-S111. Sinclair K. D., R. G. Lea, W. D. Rees and L. E. Young. 2007. The developmental origins of health and disease: current theories and epigenetic mechanisms. Society of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 64: 425-443.

OCR for page 111
0 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY Singh G. K. and S. M. Yu. 1996. Adverse pregnancy outcomes: differences between US- and foreign-born women in major US racial and ethnic groups. American Journal of Public Health 86(6): 837-843. Skull A. J., G. H. Slater, J. E. Duncombe and G. A. Fielding. 2004. Laparoscopic adjustable banding in pregnancy: safety, patient tolerance and effect on obesity-related pregnancy outcomes. Obesity Surgery 14(2): 230-235. Smith L. M., L. L. LaGasse, C. Derauf, P. Grant, R. Shah, A. Arria, M. Huestis, W. Haning, A. Strauss, S. Della Grotta, J. Liu and B. M. Lester. 2006. The infant development, en- vironment, and lifestyle study: effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure, polydrug exposure, and poverty on intrauterine growth. Pediatrics 118(3): 1149-1156. Sollid C. P., K. Wisborg, J. Hjort and N. J. Secher. 2004. Eating disorder that was diagnosed before pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecol- ogy 190(1): 206-210. Sternfeld B., C. P. Quesenberry, Jr., B. Eskenazi and L. A. Newman. 1995. Exercise during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27(5): 634-640. Stevenson L. 1997. Exercise in pregnancy. Part 1: Update on pathophysiology. Canadian Fam- ily Physician 43: 97-104. Stevens-Simon C. and E. R. McAnarney. 1992. Determinants of weight gain in pregnant ado- lescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 92(11): 1348-1351. Stevens-Simon C., E. R. McAnarney and K. J. Roghmann. 1993a. Adolescent gestational weight gain and birth weight. Pediatrics 92(6): 805-809. Stevens-Simon C., I. Nakashima and D. Andrews. 1993b. Weight gain attitudes among preg- nant adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 14(5): 369-372. Stotland N. E., J. S. Haas, P. Brawarsky, R. A. Jackson, E. Fuentes-Afflick and G. J. Escobar. 2005. Body mass index, provider advice, and target gestational weight gain. Obstetrics and Gynecology 105(3): 633-638. Suitor C. W. 1997. Maternal Weight Gain: A Report of an Expert Work Group. Arlington, VA: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health. Swinburn B. and G. Egger. 2002. Preventive strategies against weight gain and obesity. Obesity Reiews 3(4): 289-301. Swinburn B. A., B. L. Nyomba, M. F. Saad, F. Zurlo, I. Raz, W. C. Knowler, S. Lillioja, C. Bogardus and E. Ravussin. 1991. Insulin resistance associated with lower rates of weight gain in Pima Indians. Journal of Clinical Inestigation 88(1): 168-173. Tok E. C., D. Ertunc, O. Bilgin, E. M. Erdal, M. Kaplanoglu and S. Dilek. 2006. PPAR- gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with weight gain in women with gesta- tional diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductie Biology 129(1): 25-30. Townsend M. S., J. Peerson, B. Love, C. Achterberg and S. P. Murphy. 2001. Food insecurity is positively related to overweight in women. Journal of Nutrition 131(6): 1738-1745. Tsai P. J., S. C. Ho, L. P. Tsai, Y. H. Lee, S. P. Hsu, S. P. Yang, C. H. Chu and C. H. Yu. 2004. Lack of relationship between beta3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism and gesta- tional diabetes mellitus in a Taiwanese population. Metabolism 53(9): 1136-1139. Ventura S. J. 1994. Recent trends in teenage childbearing in the United States. Statistical Bul- letin/Metropolitan Insurance Companies 75(4): 10-17. Ventura S. J. and S. M. Taffel. 1985. Childbearing characteristics of U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanic mothers. Public Health Reports 100(6): 647-652. Vicennati V. and R. Pasquali. 2000. Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in nondepressed women with abdominal obesity and relations with insulin resistance: evidence for a central and a peripheral alteration. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85(11): 4093-4098.

OCR for page 111
 DETERMINANTS OF GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN Vilming B. and B. I. Nesheim. 2000. Hyperemesis gravidarum in a contemporary population in Oslo. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinaica 79(8): 640-643. Vlietinck R., R. Derom, M. C. Neale, H. Maes, H. van Loon, C. Derom and M. Thiery. 1989. Genetic and environmental variation in the birth weight of twins. Behaior Genetics 19(1): 151-161. Voigt M., S. Straube, P. Schmidt, S. Pildner von Steinburg and K. T. Schneider. 2007. [Stan- dard values for the weight gain in pregnancy according to maternal height and weight]. Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie 211(5): 191-203. Wagner C. L., L. D. Katikaneni, T. H. Cox and R. M. Ryan. 1998. The impact of prenatal drug exposure on the neonate. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 25(1): 169-194. Walker L. O. and M. Kim. 2002. Psychosocial thriving during late pregnancy: relationship to ethnicity, gestational weight gain, and birth weight. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 31(3): 263-274. Waterland R. A. and R. L. Jirtle. 2003. Transposable elements: targets for early nutritional ef- fects on epigenetic gene regulation. Molecular and Cellular Biology 23(15): 5293-5300. Waterland R. A., M. Travisano, K. G. Tahiliani, M. T. Rached and S. Mirza. 2008. Methyl donor supplementation prevents transgenerational amplification of obesity. International Journal of Obesity (London) 32(9): 1373-1379. Webb J. B., A. M. Siega-Riz and N. Dole. 2009. Psychosocial determinants of adequacy of gestational weight gain. Obesity (Siler Spring) 17(2): 300-309. Weedon M. N., T. M. Frayling, B. Shields, B. Knight, T. Turner, B. S. Metcalf, L. Voss, T. J. Wilkin, A. McCarthy, Y. Ben-Shlomo, G. Davey Smith, S. Ring, R. Jones, J. Golding, L. Byberg, V. Mann, T. Axelsson, A. C. Syvanen, D. Leon and A. T. Hattersley. 2005. Genetic regulation of birth weight and fasting glucose by a common polymorphism in the islet cell promoter of the glucokinase gene. Diabetes 54(2): 576-581. Weissman A., E. Siegler, R. Neiger, P. Jakobi and E. Z. Zimmer. 1989. The influence of in- creased seismic activity on pregnancy outcome. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecol- ogy, and Reproductie Biology 31(3): 233-236. Wells C. S., R. Schwalberg, G. Noonan and V. Gabor. 2006. Factors influencing inadequate and excessive weight gain in pregnancy: Colorado, 2000-2002. Maternal and Child Health Journal 10(1): 55-62. Whitfield J. B., S. A. Treloar, G. Zhu and N. G. Martin. 2001. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting birth-weight and adult body mass index. Twin Research 4(5): 365-370. Wilde P. E. and J. N. Peterman. 2006. Individual weight change is associated with household food security status. Journal of Nutrition 136(5): 1395-1400. Williams M. A., C. Qiu, M. Muy-Rivera, S. Vadachkoria, T. Song and D. A. Luthy. 2004. Plasma adiponectin concentrations in early pregnancy and subsequent risk of gesta- tional diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89(5): 2306- 2311. Winzer C., O. Wagner, A. Festa, B. Schneider, M. Roden, D. Bancher-Todesca, G. Pacini, T. Funahashi and A. Kautzky-Willer. 2004. Plasma adiponectin, insulin sensitivity, and subclinical inflammation in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 27(7): 1721-1727. Wisner K., D. Sit and S. Reynolds. 2007. Psychiatric Disorders. In Obstetrics Normal and Problems Pregnancies th Ed. S. Gabbe, J. Niebyl and J. Simpson. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; pp. 1249-1279. Wolff C. B., M. Portis and H. Wolff. 1993. Birth weight and smoking practices during preg- nancy among Mexican-American women. Health Care for Women International 14(3): 271-279.

OCR for page 111
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY Wolff M. S., S. Engel, G. Berkowitz, S. Teitelbaum, J. Siskind, D. B. Barr and J. Wetmur. 2007. Prenatal pesticide and PCB exposures and birth outcomes. Pediatric Research 61(2): 243-250. Yanagisawa K., N. Iwasaki, M. Sanaka, S. Minei, M. Kanamori, Y. Omori and Y. Iwamoto. 1999. Polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene and weight gain in pregnant diabetic women. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 44(1): 41-47. Websites: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/prisons.htm http://cdc.gov/yrbss