FIGURE 4-1 Schematic summary of determinants associated with GWG.

FIGURE 4-1 Schematic summary of determinants associated with GWG.

impact a woman’s eating habits during pregnancy, is necessary for developing effective weight gain recommendations. Although the committee noted some plausible associations between each of these factors and GWG, the evidence is inconclusive and the contributions of these factors to GWG (and subsequent outcomes) unclear.

Media

The committee was unable to identify studies that specifically examined the media’s influence on GWG. From a life-course perspective, however, it is plausible that the media may exert influence on GWG by shaping eating and exercise habits that become established long before pregnancy. Several previous reports have documented the influence of advertising and marketing on children’s food, beverage, and sedentary-pursuit choices in ways that can adversely affect energy balance (Kunkel, 2001; IOM, 2006). In an extensive systematic literature review, Hastings et al. (2003) concluded that food advertisements promote food purchase requests by children to parents, have an impact on children’s product and brand preferences, and



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