APPENDIX C
Supplementary Information on Composition and Components of Gestational Weight Gain

Tables C-1 through C-6 summarize literature and data that are referenced and/or support the discussion in Chapter 3, Composition and Components of Gestational Weight Gain: Physiology and Metabolism.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 329
appendix C Supplementary Information on Composition and Components of Gestational Weight Gain Tables C-1 through C-6 summarize literature and data that are refer- enced and/or support the discussion in Chapter 3, Composition and Com- ponents of Gestational Weight Gain: Physiology and Metabolism. 

OCR for page 329
STUDIES ON COMPOSITION AND COMPONENTS OF GESTATIONAL 0 GAIN: PHYSIOLOGY AND METABOLISM TABLE C-1A Maternal Weight Gain in Singleton Pregnancies (by trimester and total weight gain) Weight Gain by Trimester Study Population Description Characteristics Study Criteria 1st 2nd 3rd Total Weight Gain Author, Total Study N: By ethnicity: year: 10,418 Hispanic 0.15 kg/wk 0.54 kg/wk 0.54 kg/wk Abrams White 0.19 kg/wk 0.58 kg/wk 0.52 kg/wk et al., 1995 Black 0.21 kg/wk 0.52 kg/wk 0.49 kg/wk Asian 0.11 kg/wk 0.56 kg/wk 0.52 kg/wk Country: Other 0.14 kg/wk 0.56 kg/wk 0.52 kg/wk USA By BMI: Low BMI 0.15 kg/wk 0.57 kg/wk 0.49 kg/wk Ideal BMI 0.18 kg/wk 0.58 kg/wk 0.53 kg/wk High BMI 0.18 kg/wk 0.51 kg/wk 0.51 kg/wk Obese 0.14 kg/wk 0.41 kg/wk 0.49 kg/wk By fetal size: SGA 0.13 kg/wk 0.48 kg/wk 0.48 kg/wk AGA 0.17 kg/wk 0.56 kg/wk 0.52 kg/wk LGA 0.22 kg/wk 0.62 kg/wk 0.57 kg/wk Author, Total Study N: 2.1 kg 7.7 kg 6.6 kg 16.7 kg year: 2,994 Abrams and Group Selvin, 1995 Description: Country: White non-obese USA women

OCR for page 329
Author, Total Study N: Preterm deliveries 11 kg (0.33 kg/wk) year: 2,163 (n = 118) Abrams Term deliveries (n = 2,045) 14.5 kg (0.39 kg/wk) Group et al., 1989 Description: Country: Women at USA high risk for nutritional problems during pregnancy Author, Total Study N: Obese (n = 110) 7.4 kg year: 220 Non-obese (n = 110) 9.4 kg Amador et al., 2008 Country: Mexico Author, Total Study N: Mean: year: 11,926 Morbidly obese (n = 613) 9.1 kg Bianco Non-obese (n = 11,313) 14.2 kg Group et al., Description: 1998* Women Country: USA Author, Total Study N: Mean: Mean: Mean: year: 4,218 Underweight 1.92 kg 0.57 kg/wk 0.48 kg/wk Carmichael Group Normal weight 2.19 kg 0.58 kg/wk 0.51 kg/wk et al., 1997 Description: Overweight 2.16 kg 0.51 kg/wk 0.49 kg/wk Country: Women with Obese 1.65 kg 0.41 kg/wk 0.47 kg/wk  USA good pregnancy continued outcomes

OCR for page 329
TABLE C-1A Continued  Weight Gain by Trimester Study Population Description Characteristics Study Criteria 1st 2nd 3rd Total Weight Gain Author, Total Study N: Women with GDM 12.6 kg year: 390 (n = 78) Catalano Controls (n = 312) 15.0 kg et al., 1993 Underweight Country: GDM (n = 15) 0.24 kg/wk 0.35 kg/wk 0.34 kg/wk 12.2 kg USA Control (n = 92) 0.28 kg/wk 0.38 kg/wk 0.39 kg/wk 15.0 kg Average weight GDM (n = 34) 0.29 kg/wk 0.42 kg/wk 0.39 kg/wk 14.6 kg Control (n = 172) 0.35 kg/wk 0.40 kg/wk 0.40 kg/wk 15.2 kg Overweight GDM (n = 29) 0.27 kg/wk 0.32 kg/wk 0.30 kg/wk 10.5 kg Control (n = 48) 0.28 kg/wk 0.36 kg/wk 0.37 kg/wk 14.1 kg Author, Total Study N: BMI 13.5 kg < 20 year: 245,526 BMI 20-24.9 13.8 kg Cedergren, BMI 25-29.9 13.2 kg 2006* BMI 30-34.9 11.1 kg BMI 8.7 kg > 35 Country: Sweden Author, Total Study N: Obese (n = 155) 8.7 kg year: 348 Controls (n = 193) 11.3 kg Claesson Adjusted: et al., 2008 7.5 kg 9.8 kg Country: Sweden

OCR for page 329
Author, Total Study N: Pregravid BMI: Hispanic: White: Black: Asian: year: 985 Underweight (n = 266) 12.1 kg 12.6 kg 13.5 kg 12.1 kg Gunderson Normal (n = 595) 12.9 kg 13.2 kg 13.8 kg 11.8 kg Group et al., Overweight (n = 71) 13.5 kg 14.7 kg 14.3 kg 13.4 kg Description: 2001* Obese (n = 53) 11.0 kg 10.6 kg 10.9 kg 11.9 kg Healthy women Country: Race/ethnicity: USA Hispanic (n = 130) White (n = 532) Black (n = 100) Asian (n = 223) Author, Total Study N: Total (n = 1,790) 7.29 kg 7.46 kg 14.75 kg year: 1,790 Adequate gain (n = 955) 9.12 kg 9.26 kg 18.38 kg Hediger Early inadequate 1.89 kg 8.89 kg 10.78 kg Group et al., 1989 (n = 304) Description: Late inadequate 8.94 kg 3.27 kg 12.21kg Country: Adolescents (n = 387) USA Both inadequate 2.18 kg 3.69 kg 5.87 kg (Camden, (n = 144) NJ) (early gain, (late gain, (0-deliery) 0- wks)  wks- deliery) Author, Total Study N: Black women, pregravid year: 1,015 BMI: Hickey Low BMI (n = 255) 2.61 kg 0.49 kg/wk 0.46 kg/wk Group et al., 1995 Normal BMI (n = 422) 2.54 kg 0.46 kg/wk 0.45 kg/wk Description: Country: Non-obese low- White women, pregravid USA income black and BMI: white women Low BMI (n = 143) 2.93 kg 0.52 kg/wk 0.42 kg/wk Normal BMI (n = 195) 1.81 kg 0.52 kg/wk 0.45 kg/wk  continued

OCR for page 329
TABLE C-1A Continued  Weight Gain by Trimester Study Population Description Characteristics Study Criteria 1st 2nd 3rd Total Weight Gain Author, Total Study N: Adolescents (n = 123) 15.4 kg 272 Adults (n = 149) 14.4 kg year: Johnston (. wks gestation) Group et al., 1992 Description: Country: Middle class, USA upper class Author, Total Study N: Intervention (n = 48) 14.6 kg Control (n = 56) 14.3 kg year: 132 Kinnunen Group et al., 2007 Description: Country: Primiparas Finland Mean prepregnancy BMI: Author, Total Study N: 14.5 kg 22.1 kg/m2 year: 9,742 (0.37 kg/wk) Kramer Group Time of delivery: et al., 1992 Description: 14.6 kg ≥ 37 weeks Mostly 12.5 kg < 37 weeks Canadian-born, 9.9 kg < 34 weeks Caucasians 9.1 kg < 32 weeks 12.6 kg Author, Total Study N: Delivered SGA infant (n 0.99 kg 334 = 30) year: 1.95 kg 12.8 kg Lawton Delivered AGA infant Group et al., 1988 (n = 128) (gain Description: between Country: Predominantly 28-32 UK white women weeks)

OCR for page 329
Author, Total Study N: Pregravid weight/height: year: 145 75%-90% ideal weight 16 kg Loris et al., (n = 25) Group 1985 91%-110% ideal weight 18 kg Description: (n = 68) Country: Teens, aged 111%-166% ideal weight 17 kg USA 13-19 years (n = 28) Delivered at term Author, Total Study N: Normal weight (0-0% year: 371 of standard pregraid Muscati wt/ht) 0-20 wks: 21-30 wks: 31-term: Group et al., 3.8 kg 5.3 kg 4.1 kg 13.2 kg PPWR < median Description: 1996* 7.1 kg 6.8 kg 6.2 kg 20.2 kg PPWR ≥ median Healthy, white, Country: nonsmoking Underweight (< 0% of Canada women standard pregraid wt/ht) 3.8 kg 5.4 kg 4.1 kg 13.3 kg PPWR < median 7.1 kg 6.4 kg 6.1 kg 19.6 kg PPWR ≥ median Oerweight (> 0% of standard pregraid wt/ht) 1.4 kg 4.5 kg 3.7 kg 9.6 kg PPWR < median 7.6 kg 6.2 kg 5.3 kg 19.1 kg PPWR ≥ median Author, Total Study N: Prepregnancy BMI: year: 1,044 15.7 kg < 19.8 (n = 124) Oken et al., 19.8-26.0 (n = 622) 16.4 kg 2007* 26.1-29.0 (n = 134) 15.3 kg 13.1 kg > 29.0 (n = 164) Country: USA  continued

OCR for page 329
TABLE C-1A Continued  Weight Gain by Trimester Study Population Description Characteristics Study Criteria 1st 2nd 3rd Total Weight Gain Author, Total Study N: Birth weight: year: 459 0.50 kg/wk 13.8 kg < 3,000 g (n = 88) Rees et al., Group 3,000-4,000 g (n = 274) 0.58 kg/wk 16.6 kg 1992 Description: Country: Adolescents USA Author, Total Study N: Prepregnancy weight: year: 262 12 kg Underweight, < 89% Rosso, Group standard weight 1985 Description: (n = 62) Country: Mostly black Normal, 90-110% 10 kg USA (51%) and standard weight Hispanic (41%) (n = 137) women 7 kg Overweight, > 111% standard weight (n = 63) Author, Total Study N: Mean: Mean: year: 266,172 Low BMI (n = 45,142) 0.39 kg/wk 15.2 kg Schieve Average BMI (n = 135,390) 0.38 kg/wk 15.0 kg Group et al., High BMI (n = 33,697) 0.35 kg/wk 13.8 kg Description: 1999* Obese (n = 51,943) 0.29 kg/wk 11.6 kg Low income Country: women USA

OCR for page 329
Author, Total Study N: Prepregnant relative weight year: 696 (% ideal): Scholl et al., 14.5 kg Underweight, < 90% Group 1988 (n = 183) Description: Ideal, 90-119% 14.6 kg Country: Adolescents; (n = 397) USA Delivered at 37 14.7 kg Overweight, ≥ 120% weeks or more (n = 116) gestation Author, Total Study N: Low gain 10.2 kg year: 274 < 34 kg/wk (n = 59) Scholl et al., Moderate gain 13.3 kg Group 1995* (n = 138) Description: Excessive gain 20.0 kg Country: Low SES > 0.68 kg/wk (n = 77) USA 12-29 years Author, Total Study N: Rapid gain (n = 30) > 0.40 kg/wk year: 55 Average gain (n = 15) 0.23-0.40 kg/wk Segel and Slow gain (n = 10) < 0.23 kg/wk Group McAnarney, Description: 1994 Teens, Black Country: USA Author, Total Study N: BMI 1.60 kg 0.57 kg/wk 0.52 kg/wk < 19.8 year: 8,736 BMI 19.8-26 1.03 kg 0.56 kg/wk 0.54 kg/wk Siega-Riz BMI 26-29 0.74 kg 0.49 kg/wk 0.51 kg/wk et al., BMI 0.78 kg 0.43 kg/wk 0.52 kg/wk > 30 1994* Country: USA  continued

OCR for page 329
TABLE C-1A Continued  Weight Gain by Trimester Study Population Description Characteristics Study Criteria 1st 2nd 3rd Total Weight Gain Author, Total Study N: Preterm deliveries 1.4 kg 0.51 kg/wk 0.50 kg/wk year: 9,651 (n = 517) Siega-Riz Term deliveries (n = 7,072) 1.2 kg 0.53 kg/wk 0.53 kg/wk Group et al., 1996 Description: Country: 80% Hispanic USA Author, Total Study N: Weight Gain: year: 141 0.16 kg/wk 6.50 kg Slow, < 0.28 kg/wk Stevens- (n = 23) Group Simon and Average, 0.28-0.45 kg/ 0.32 kg/wk 13.3 kg Description: McAnarney, wk (n = 87) Teens, Black 1992* 0.56 kg/wk 22.7 kg Rapid, > 0.45 kg/wk (n = 31) Country: USA Author, Total Study N: Normal weight (n = 29) 11.0 kg year: 77 Overweight (n = 23) 11.9 kg Soltani Obese (n = 25) 9.7 kg and Fraser, 2000* Country: UK

OCR for page 329
Author, Total Study N: 9.9 kg year: 46,659 Takimoto, Group 2006* Description: Country: Low risk Japan deliveries Author, Total Study N: 10.5 kg BMI < 18 (n = 493) year: 3,071 BMI 18-24 (n = 2,301) 9.8 kg Tsukamoto 6.6 kg BMI > 24.0 (n = 277) et al., 2007 Country: Japan Author, Total Study N: Maternal Height Predicted weight gain (mean): year: 432 140-155 cm 0.39 kg/wk Villamor 156-160 cm 0.48 kg/wk et al., 1998 161-165 cm 0.44 kg/wk 166-170 cm 0.47 kg/wk Country: 171-180 cm 0.69 kg/wk Isreal NOTES: First trimester, 0-13 weeks; Second trimester, 13-26 weeks; Third trimester, 27-40 weeks. PPWR = Postpartum weight retention. *Indicates that study is included in the systematic literature review conducted by Viswanathan et al., 2008. 

OCR for page 329
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY TABLE C-4 Continued Body Composition Author Population/Study Measurements (FFM, (Year) Characteristics Study Criteria FM, TBW) Author, Total Study N: 9 year: Body weight Kopp- TBW Group Description: Hoolihan Healthy, non-smokers TBW/FFM et al., planning a pregnancy TBBM 1999 FFM FM Country: USA Mean wt gain Mean fat gain % wt as FM BMI/Gain Author, Total Study N: 196 Categories Body water gain: year: Lederman BMI < . Group Description: et al., Hispanic, White and Black Total (n = 21) 6.1 L 1997* < rec (n = 6) women 6.4 L Aged 18-35 years rec (n = 7) 5.9 L Country: > rec (n = 8) USA [BC by 4-compartment 6.1 L method] BMI .- Total (n = 118) 7.0 L < rec (n = 31) 6.2 L rec (n = 46) 6.9 L > rec (n = 41) 7.6 L BMI > - Total (n = 29) 7.8 L < rec (n = 7) 6.9 L rec (n = 9) 5.7 L > rec (n = 13) 9.7 L BMI >  Total (n = 28) 7.3 L < rec (n = 7) 7.8 L rec (n = 6) 6.0 L > rec (n = 15) 7.6 L Pregnant women Author, Total Study N: 17 Body weight year: Lof and TBW Group Description: Forsum, FFM Adults 2004 FM [BC by deuterium dilution Country: underwater weighing] Sweden

OCR for page 329
 APPENDIX C Weight Gain/Body Composition by Total Postpartum Trimester Pregravid Weight/ Weight Weight/Body Body Comp 1st 2nd 3rd Gain Composition 4-6 wks -0 wks - wks - wks 64.7 kg 64.9 kg 72.1 kg 75.9 kg 68.0 kg 33.5 kg 33.9 kg 36.5 kg 39.1 kg 33.8 kg 0.72 0.73 0.74 0.74 0.72 2525 g — — — 2463 g 46.3 kg 46.7 kg 49.7 kg 52.8 kg 46.7 kg 20.2 kg 20.3 kg 24.4 kg 24.3 kg 22.0 kg — 0.19 kg 7.23 kg 3.76 kg 11.2 kg — -0.10 kg — 0.10 kg 4.10 kg 4.20 kg — -3.00 — 53.00 57.00 — — Fat gain: 63.4 kg 4.8 kg 12.60 kg 0.6 kg 7.90 kg 6.0 kg 12.60 kg 6.9 kg 16.10 kg 3.9 kg 12.2 kg 1.3 kg 8.60 kg 3.8 kg 12.1 kg 6.0 kg 15.2 kg 2.8 kg 11.0 kg 0.3 kg 8.50 kg 2.8 kg 9.10 kg 4.2 kg 13.6 kg 0.2 kg 8.70 kg -5.2kg 3.20 kg -0.6kg 6.9 kg 3.1 kg 12.0 kg Week  Week   wk pp: 66.6 kg 68.4 kg 77.3 kg 16.7 kg 71.5 kg 31.5 kg 32.5 kg 38.1 kg 33.6 kg 43.9 kg 44.9 kg 51.0 kg 45.7 kg 22.7 kg 23.5 kg 26.3 kg 25.8 kg continued

OCR for page 329
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY TABLE C-4 Continued Body Composition Author Population/Study Measurements (FFM, (Year) Characteristics Study Criteria FM, TBW) WT Author, Total Study N: 15 NGT (n = 8) year: Okereke GDM (n = 7) Group Description: et al., FFM Obese women 2004 NGT GDM Country: FM USA NGT GDM Author, Total Study N: 108 year: Teens < 16 yrs WT Stevens- LBM Group Description: Simon Teens, Black FM et al., [All weights are net wt 1997 Teens 16-18 yrs WT Total body potassium] LBM Country: FM USA NOTE: First trimester, 0-13 weeks; Second trimester, 13-26 weeks; Third trimester, 27-40 weeks. GDM = gestational diabetes mellitus; FFM = fat-free mass; FM = fat mass; TBW = total body weigh; NGT = normal glucose tolerance; WT = weight. *Indicates that study is included in the systematic literature review conducted by Viswanathan et al., 2008.

OCR for page 329
 APPENDIX C Weight Gain/Body Composition by Total Postpartum Trimester Pregravid Weight/ Weight Weight/Body Body Comp 1st 2nd 3rd Gain Composition - wks - wks 71.4 kg 73.2 kg 84.1 kg 78.2 kg 79.6 kg 89.5 kg 49.4 kg 50.1 kg 55.2 kg 51.7 kg 52.1 kg 56.8 kg 22.0 kg 23.1 kg 28.9 kg 26.5 kg 27.5 kg 32.7 kg - wks - wks 59.7 kg 61.6 kg 68.3 kg 46.6 kg 50.8 kg 15.0 kg 17.50 kg 61.7 kg 63.9 kg 69.6 kg 47.8 kg 51.2 kg 16.1 kg 18.3 kg

OCR for page 329
TABLE C-5 Mean Weights and Percentiles for Placentas (singletons, twins, and triplets)  90th Percentile Mean Placental Weight 10th Percentile Cases (n) Gestational age (weeks) Singletons Twins Triplets Singletons Twins Triplets Singletons Twins Triplets Singletons Twins Triplets 19 — 263 — — 212 — — 161 — — 2 — 20 — 270 285 — 218 253 — 166 226 — 3 3 21 172 286 320 143 231 284 114 176 257 3 2 2 22 191 310 345 157 251 319 122 191 289 6 5 2 23 211 343 400 172 276 361 133 210 331 7 2 3 24 233 382 445 189 307 406 145 232 371 9 3 5 25 256 426 498 208 341 456 159 257 408 19 5 6 26 280 475 558 227 380 509 175 284 444 14 4 6 27 305 528 630 248 421 564 192 314 480 9 8 4 28 331 584 697 270 464 621 210 345 516 16 7 5 29 357 641 772 293 509 679 229 377 553 11 12 6 30 384 700 849 316 554 738 249 409 591 12 17 10 31 411 758 925 340 600 797 269 441 631 14 13 15 32 438 815 1,000 364 644 855 290 472 674 24 29 7 33 464 870 1,072 387 687 911 311 503 719 30 27 14 34 491 923 1,139 411 727 965 331 531 768 32 53 43 35 516 971 1,200 434 764 1,017 352 558 821 44 52 33 36 542 1,014 1,253 457 798 1,065 372 582 878 36 66 19 37 566 1,051 1,297 478 827 1,108 391 602 940 32 58 8 38 589 1,082 1,330 499 850 1,147 409 619 1,007 62 54 5 39 611 1,105 — 519 868 — 426 631 — 103 38 — 40 632 1,118 — 537 879 — 442 639 — 193 47 — 41 651 1,123 — 553 882 — 456 642 — 87 12 — SOURCES: Pediatric Pathology & Laboratory Medicine by Pinar H., C. J. Sung, C. E. Oyer and D. B. Singer. Copyright 1996 by Informa Clinical Medicine—Journals. Reproduced with permission of Informa Clinical Medicine—Journals via Copyright Clearance Center; Reprinted from Pinar H., M. Stephens, D. B. Singer, T. K. Boyd, S. M. Pflueger, D. L. Gang, D. J. Roberts and C. J. Sung. 2002. Triplet placentas: reference values for weights. Pediatric and Deelopmental Pathology 5(5): 495-498 with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media.

OCR for page 329
TABLE C-6 DNA, Glycogen, and Lipid Content in Placentas from Normal and Diabetic Human Pregnancies Placental Lipid Placental DNA Placental Glycogen Triglycerides Placental Weight (g/total (mg/mg (g/total (µmol/mg (mmol/total Pregnancy (g) (mg/g) placenta) (mg/g) DNA) placenta) (µmol/g) DNA) placenta) Normal (n = 50) 550 ± 28 2.54 ± 0.13 1.40 ± 0.07 8.4 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.3 4.67 ± 0.29 2.51 ± 0.16 0.98 ± 0.15 1.38 ± 0.10 Gestational diabetes 664 ± 60 2.58 ± 0.24 1.71a ± 0.12 9.9 ± 0.8 3.8 ± 0.4 6.57a ± 0.60 3.32a ± 0.31 1.29 ± 0.20 2.20a ± 0.25 (n = 23) Insulin-treated 615 ± 110 3.04 ± 0.32 1.87a ± 0.20 14.9b ± 1.9 4.9a ± 0.3 9.16b ± 0.88 4.56b ± 0.70 1.50 ± 0.16 2.80b ± 0.41 diabetes (n = 12) NOTE: Values in the table are means ± SE for number of patients indicated in parentheses. aSignificant difference from value for normal pregnancy (p < 0.05). bSignificant difference from value for normal pregnancy (p < 0.01). SOURCE: Modified from Diamant et al., 1982. This information was published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol 144, Diamant Y. Z., B. E. Metzger, N. Freinkel and E. Shafrir, Placental lipid and glycogen content in human and experimental diabetes mellitus, Pages 5-11, Copyright Elsevier (1982). 

OCR for page 329
0 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY REFERENCES Abrams B. and S. Selvin. 1995. Maternal weight gain pattern and birth weight. Obstetrics and Gynecology 86(2): 163-169. Abrams B., V. Newman, T. Key and J. Parker. 1989. Maternal weight gain and preterm deliv- ery. Obstetrics and Gynecology 74(4): 577-583. Abrams B., S. Carmichael and S. Selvin. 1995. Factors associated with the pattern of maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 86(2): 170-176. Amador N., J. M. Juarez, J. M. Guizar and B. Linares. 2008. Quality of life in obese pregnant women: a longitudinal study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 198(2): 203 e201-e205. Bianco A. T., S. W. Smilen, Y. Davis, S. Lopez, R. Lapinski and C. J. Lockwood. 1998. Pregnancy outcome and weight gain recommendations for the morbidly obese woman. Obstetrics and Gynecology 91(1): 97-102. Bronstein M. N., R. P. Mak and J. C. King. 1996. Unexpected relationship between fat mass and basal metabolic rate in pregnant women. British Journal of Nutrition 75(5): 659-668. Brown J. E. and P. T. Schloesser. 1990. Prepregnancy weight status, prenatal weight gain, and the outcome of term twin gestations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 162(1): 182-186. Butte N. F., K. J. Ellis, W. W. Wong, J. M. Hopkinson and E. O. Smith. 2003. Composition of gestational weight gain impacts maternal fat retention and infant birth weight. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 189(5): 1423-1432. Carmichael S., B. Abrams and S. Selvin. 1997. The association of pattern of maternal weight gain with length of gestation and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 11(4): 392-406. Catalano P. M., N. M. Roman, E. D. Tyzbir, A. O. Merritt, P. Driscoll and S. B. Amini. 1993. Weight gain in women with gestational diabetes. Obstetrics and Gynecology 81(4): 523-528. Catalano P. M., N. M. Roman-Drago, S. B. Amini and E. A. Sims. 1998. Longitudinal changes in body composition and energy balance in lean women with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 179(1): 156-165. Cedergren M. 2006. Effects of gestational weight gain and body mass index on obstetric out- come in Sweden. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 93(3): 269-274. Claesson I. M., G. Sydsjo, J. Brynhildsen, M. Cedergren, A. Jeppsson, F. Nystrom, A. Sydsjo and A. Josefsson. 2008. Weight gain restriction for obese pregnant women: a case-control intervention study. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 115(1): 44-50. Cogswell M. E., M. K. Serdula, D. W. Hungerford and R. Yip. 1995. Gestational weight gain among average-weight and overweight women—what is excessive? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 172(2 Pt 1): 705-712. Diamant Y. Z., B. E. Metzger, N. Freinkel and E. Shafrir. 1982. Placental lipid and glycogen content in human and experimental diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 144(1): 5-11. Eddib A., J. Penvose-Yi, J. A. Shelton and J. Yeh. 2007. Triplet gestation outcomes in relation to maternal prepregnancy body mass index and weight gain. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 20(7): 515-519. Ehrenberg H. M., L. Huston-Presley and P. M. Catalano. 2003. The influence of obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus on accretion and the distribution of adipose tissue in preg- nancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 189(4): 944-948.

OCR for page 329
 APPENDIX C Fenton T. R. and J. E. Thirsk. 1994. Twin pregnancy: the distribution of maternal weight gain of non-smoking normal weight women. Canadian Journal of Public Health. Reue Canadienne de Sante Publique 85(1): 37-40. Forsum E., M. Lof, H. Olausson and E. Olhager. 2006. Maternal body composition in rela- tion to infant birth weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue. British Journal of Nutrition 96(2): 408-414. Gunderson E. P., B. Abrams and S. Selvin. 2001. Does the pattern of postpartum weight change differ according to pregravid body size? International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 25(6): 853-862. Hediger M. L., T. O. Scholl, D. H. Belsky, I. G. Ances and R. W. Salmon. 1989. Patterns of weight gain in adolescent pregnancy: effects on birth weight and preterm delivery. Ob- stetrics and Gynecology 74(1): 6-12. Hickey C. A., S. P. Cliver, R. L. Goldenberg, J. Kohatsu and H. J. Hoffman. 1993. Prenatal weight gain, term birth weight, and fetal growth retardation among high-risk multipa- rous black and white women. Obstetrics and Gynecology 81(4): 529-535. Hickey C. A., S. P. Cliver, S. F. McNeal, H. J. Hoffman and R. L. Goldenberg. 1995. Prenatal weight gain patterns and spontaneous preterm birth among nonobese black and white women. Obstetrics and Gynecology 85(6): 909-914. Johnston C. S. and L. A. Kandell. 1992. Prepregnancy weight and rate of maternal weight gain in adolescents and young adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 92(12): 1515-1517. Kiel D. W., E. A. Dodson, R. Artal, T. K. Boehmer and T. L. Leet. 2007. Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in obese women: how much is enough? Obstetrics and Gynecology 110(4): 752-758. Kinnunen T. I., M. Pasanen, M. Aittasalo, M. Fogelholm, L. Hilakivi-Clarke, E. Weiderpass and R. Luoto. 2007. Preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy—a controlled trial in primary health care. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61(7): 884-891. Kopp-Hoolihan L. E., M. D. van Loan, W. W. Wong and J. C. King. 1999. Longitudinal as- sessment of energy balance in well-nourished, pregnant women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69(4): 697-704. Kramer M. S., F. H. McLean, E. L. Eason and R. H. Usher. 1992. Maternal nutrition and spontaneous preterm birth. American Journal of Epidemiology 136(5): 574-583. Lantz M. E., R. A. Chez, A. Rodriguez and K. B. Porter. 1996. Maternal weight gain pat- terns and birth weight outcome in twin gestation. Obstetrics and Gynecology 87(4): 551-556. Lawton F. G., G. C. Mason, K. A. Kelly, I. N. Ramsay and G. A. Morewood. 1988. Poor ma- ternal weight gain between 28 and 32 weeks gestation may predict small-for-gestational- age infants. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 95(9): 884-887. Lederman S. A., A. Paxton, S. B. Heymsfield, J. Wang, J. Thornton and R. N. Pierson, Jr. 1997. Body fat and water changes during pregnancy in women with different body weight and weight gain. Obstetrics and Gynecology 90(4 Pt 1): 483-488. Lof M. and E. Forsum. 2004. Hydration of fat-free mass in healthy women with special refer- ence to the effect of pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80(4): 960-965. Loris P., K. G. Dewey and K. Poirier-Brode. 1985. Weight gain and dietary intake of pregnant teenagers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 85(10): 1296-1305. Luke B. and S. Leurgans. 1996. Maternal weight gains in ideal twin outcomes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96(2): 178-181. Luke B., L. Keith, T. R. Johnson and D. Keith. 1991. Pregravid weight, gestational weight gain and current weight of women delivered of twins. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 19(5): 333-340.

OCR for page 329
 WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY Luke B., J. Minogue and H. Abbey. 1992. The association between maternal weight gain and the birth weight of twins. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine 1: 267-276. Luke B., E. Bryan, C. Sweetland, S. Leurgans and L. Keith. 1995. Prenatal weight gain and the birthweight of triplets. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 44(2): 93-101. Luke B., M. L. Hediger, C. Nugent, R. B. Newman, J. G. Mauldin, F. R. Witter and M. J. O’Sullivan. 2003. Body mass index—specific weight gains associated with optimal birth weights in twin pregnancies. Journal of Reproductie Medicine 48(4): 217-224. Muscati S. K., K. Gray-Donald and K. G. Koski. 1996. Timing of weight gain during preg- nancy: promoting fetal growth and minimizing maternal weight retention. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 20(6): 526-532. Nohr E. A., M. Vaeth, B. H. Bech, T. B. Henriksen, S. Cnattingius and J. Olsen. 2007. Ma- ternal obesity and neonatal mortality according to subtypes of preterm birth. Obstetrics and Gynecology 110(5): 1083-1090. Oken E., E. M. Taveras, K. P. Kleinman, J. W. Rich-Edwards and M. W. Gillman. 2007. Ges- tational weight gain and child adiposity at age 3 years. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 196(4): 322 e321-328. Okereke N. C., L. Huston-Presley, S. B. Amini, S. Kalhan and P. M. Catalano. 2004. Lon- gitudinal changes in energy expenditure and body composition in obese women with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism 287(3): E472-E479. Pederson A. L., B. Worthington-Roberts and D. E. Hickok. 1989. Weight gain patterns during twin gestation. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 89(5): 642-646. Pinar H., C. J. Sung, C. E. Oyer and D. B. Singer. 1996. Reference values for singleton and twin placental weights. Pediatric Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 16(6): 901-907. Pinar H., M. Stephens, D. B. Singer, T. K. Boyd, S. M. Pflueger, D. L. Gang, D. J. Roberts and C. J. Sung. 2002. Triplet placentas: reference values for weights. Pediatric and Deelop- mental Pathology 5(5): 495-498. Rees J. M., K. A. Engelbert-Fenton, E. J. Gong and C. M. Bach. 1992. Weight gain in ado- lescents during pregnancy: rate related to birth-weight outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56(5): 868-873. Rosso P. 1985. A new chart to monitor weight gain during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41(3): 644-652. Schieve L. A., M. E. Cogswell and K. S. Scanlon. 1999. Maternal weight gain and preterm delivery: differential effects by body mass index. Epidemiology 10(2): 141-147. Schieve L. A., M. E. Cogswell, K. S. Scanlon, G. Perry, C. Ferre, C. Blackmore-Prince, S. M. Yu and D. Rosenberg. 2000. Prepregnancy body mass index and pregnancy weight gain: associations with preterm delivery. The NMIHS Collaborative Study Group. Obstetrics and Gynecology 96(2): 194-200. Scholl T. O., R. W. Salmon, L. K. Miller, P. Vasilenko, 3rd, C. H. Furey and M. Christine. 1988. Weight gain during adolescent pregnancy. Associated maternal characteristics and effects on birth weight. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 9(4): 286-290. Scholl T. O., M. L. Hediger, J. I. Schall, I. G. Ances and W. K. Smith. 1995. Gestational weight gain, pregnancy outcome, and postpartum weight retention. Obstetrics and Gynecology 86(3): 423-427. Segel J. S. and E. R. McAnarney. 1994. Adolescent pregnancy and subsequent obesity in African-American girls. Journal of Adolescent Health 15(6): 491-494. Siega-Riz A. M., L. S. Adair and C. J. Hobel. 1994. Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendations and pregnancy outcome in a predominantly Hispanic population. Obstetrics and Gynecology 84(4): 565-573.

OCR for page 329
 APPENDIX C Siega-Riz A. M., L. S. Adair and C. J. Hobel. 1996. Maternal underweight status and inad- equate rate of weight gain during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery. Journal of Nutrition 126(1): 146-153. Soltani H. and R. B. Fraser. 2000. A longitudinal study of maternal anthropometric changes in normal weight, overweight and obese women during pregnancy and postpartum. British Journal of Nutrition 84(1): 95-101. Stevens-Simon C. and E. R. McAnarney. 1992. Determinants of weight gain in pregnant ado- lescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 92(11): 1348-1351. Stevens-Simon C., E. R. McAnarney, K. J. Roghmann and G. B. Forbes. 1997. Composition of gestational weight gain in adolescent pregnancy. Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine 6(2): 79-86. Stotland N. E., Y. W. Cheng, L. M. Hopkins and A. B. Caughey. 2006. Gestational weight gain and adverse neonatal outcome among term infants. Obstetrics and Gynecology 108(3 Pt 1): 635-643. Taffel S. M., K. G. Keppel and G. K. Jones. 1993. Medical advice on maternal weight gain and actual weight gain. Results from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 678: 293-305. Takimoto H., T. Sugiyama, H. Fukuoka, N. Kato and N. Yoshiike. 2006. Maternal weight gain ranges for optimal fetal growth in Japanese women. International Journal of Gynaecol- ogy and Obstetrics 92(3): 272-278. Tsukamoto H., H. Fukuoka, K. Inoue, M. Koyasu, Y. Nagai and H. Takimoto. 2007. Restrict- ing weight gain during pregnancy in Japan: a controversial factor in reducing perinatal complications. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductie Biology 133(1): 53-59. Villamor E., R. Gofin and B. Adler. 1998. Maternal anthropometry and pregnancy outcome among Jerusalem women. Annals Of Human Biology 25(4): 331-343. Viswanathan M., A. M. Siega-Riz, M.-K. Moos, A. Deierlein, S. Mumford, J. Knaack, P. Thieda, L. J. Lux and K. N. Lohr. 2008. Outcomes of Maternal Weight Gain, Eidence Report/Technology Assessment No. . (Prepared by RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under contract No. 290-02-0016.) AHRQ Publication No. 08-E-09. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Wen S. W., R. L. Goldenberg, G. R. Cutter, H. J. Hoffman and S. P. Cliver. 1990. Intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery: prenatal risk factors in an indigent population. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 162(1): 213-218. Yeh J. and J. A. Shelton. 2007. Association of pre-pregnancy maternal body mass and maternal weight gain to newborn outcomes in twin pregnancies. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinaica 86(9): 1051-1057.

OCR for page 329