TABLE D-1 Summary of Literature on Determinants of Gestational Weight Gain







The committee was unable to identify studies that examined specifically the media’s influence on gestational weight gain.

Media may exert its effects on gestational weight gain indirectly by influencing prepregnancy BMI and other biological determinants, as well as eating habits and sedentary behaviors that are established well before pregnancy.

Gortmaker et al., 1996

Gortmaker et al., 1999

Robinson, 1999

Kunkel, 2001

Hastings et al., 2003

Epstein et al., 2008

Culture and Acculturation

The committee was unable to identify studies that examined specifically the effects of culture and acculturation factors on gestational weight gain.

Cultural norms and beliefs can influence dietary behavior and physical activities, thereby affecting energy balance and gestational weight gain. Acculturation is generally associated with more unhealthy behaviors, including dietary intake, and higher rates of overweight and obesity.

Ventura and Taffel, 1985

Scribner and Dwyer, 1989

Cabral et al., 1990

Kleinman et al., 1991

Rumbaut and Weeks, 1996

Singh and Yu, 1996

Fuentes-Afflick and Lurie, 1997

Schaffer et al., 1998

Jones and Bond, 1999

King, 2000

Callister and Birkhead, 2002

Lizarzaburu and Palinkas, 2002

Hubert et al., 2005

Baker and Hellerstedt, 2006

Hernandez-Valero et al., 2007

Fuentes-Afflick and Hessol, 2008

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