FIGURE 2-16 Trends in estimated percentage of women of childbearing age who reported meeting guidelines for regular physical activity.

FIGURE 2-16 Trends in estimated percentage of women of childbearing age who reported meeting guidelines for regular physical activity.

NOTE: Physical activity is defined as at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity per day on 5 or more days a week, or at least 20 minutes a day of vigorous-intensity activity on 3 or more days a week, or both, when not working; an exercise occurrence is defined as 10+ minutes.

SOURCE: CDC, 2007.

graduate from high school to 53.3 percent among college graduates (CDC, 2007).

In summary, a high proportion of women of childbearing age fail to meet current guidelines for physical activity before or during pregnancy. The committee identified only limited data on physical activity or inactivity among pregnant women. The committee identified no data on postpartum mothers or physical activity according to BMI and weight change before, during, and after pregnancy.

Psychological Characteristics

Depression The committee investigated trends in depression because changes in appetite and weight are among the diagnostic criteria for major depression (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). In their meta-analysis, Gaynes et al. (2005) estimated that one in seven women will develop depression during pregnancy or after delivery. Although nationally representative data specific to women during and after pregnancy are not available, data for U.S. women of childbearing age illustrate striking increases in the prevalence of major depression from 1991-1992 to 2001-2002 in the total population and among white and black women (Figure 2-17) (Compton et al., 2006). Similar trends were observed among women 30 to 44 years of age, but the rates of major depression were lower than those of women aged



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