FIGURE 2-17 Prevalence of major depression among women 18-29 years of age in the United States by race or ethnicity, 1991-1992 and 2001-2002.

FIGURE 2-17 Prevalence of major depression among women 18-29 years of age in the United States by race or ethnicity, 1991-1992 and 2001-2002.

SOURCE: Compton et al., 2006.

18-29 years. Given that more than 10 percent of women of childbearing age may be depressed, screening and intervention for symptoms of depression during pregnancy may be required to achieve better GWG.


Other psychological characteristics Other psychological factors that may influence GWG include stress, social support, and attitude toward weight gain (see Chapter 4). The committee did not identify any nationally representative data specific to women during and after pregnancy that were indicative of trends or prevalence of these factors related to GWG.

PREGNANCY OUTCOMES RELATED TO GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN

The following describes trends since 1990 in known GWG-related pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and gestational hypertension, cesarean delivery, maternal mortality, birth weight, preterm birth, breastfeeding, and childhood obesity.

Gestational Diabetes

Data from birth certificates collected nationally illustrate that there has been a striking increase in the prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy in each



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