B

Bariatric surgery, 141142, 271

Basal metabolic rate, 135138, 139

Basal oxygen consumption, 83

Bioimpedance analysis, 78

Biomarker predictors of birth outcomes, 156

Birth certificates

GWG and prepregnancy BMI data from, 2933

recommendations for revision, 5, 33, 66

shortcomings of data from, 30

Birth weight

child health outcomes, 198

classification, 86, 87, 206207

determinants, 206

fetal growth and, 206

genetic factors in, 129133

gestational age and, 87, 88f

high altitude effects, 117

infants born to incarcerated mothers, 154

maternal body composition and, 102

maternal body water accretion and, 78

maternal plasma volume and, 78

maternal substance use and, 151

maternal weight gain and, 73f, 198, 208211

multiple fetus pregnancies, 8889

optimal, 86

patterns and trends, 57, 58f, 8788

prepregnancy weight and, 73f, 207

rate of GWG and, 7677

See also Large-for-gestational age infants;

Low-birth weight babies;

Small-for-gestational age infants

Bone mineral, 8083

Breast cancer, 186, 227228, 230

Breastfeeding

GWG-related outcomes, 187, 216217

trends, 62

See also Lactation

Bulimia nervosa, 140141

C

Caloric intake, 48

Cancer, GWG and

birth weight and, 227

evidence for linkage, 186, 227228, 230

hormonal system, 227228

recommendations for research, 8, 188

Carbohydrate metabolism, 95

Cardiovascular health

long-term outcomes of GWG, 185, 186187

maternal changes during pregnancy, 9293

recommendations for research, 8, 188

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 9, 270

Cesarean delivery

evidence for GWG linkage, 186, 187

as GWG-related outcome, 7, 180181

maternal obesity and, 5455, 72, 180181

risks for women of small stature, 3

trends, 54, 65

Childhood health

allergy/asthma, 226227

cancer, 227228, 230

long-term outcomes, 258259

neurodevelopmental, 222226, 229, 230

recommendations for research, 8, 230231

See also Childhood obesity;

Infant health

Childhood obesity

acculturation effects, 114

associated health risks, 199201

developmental programming model, 198199

GWG linkage, 199201, 230

as GWG-related outcome, 7, 15, 216, 217221, 229, 230

infant weight gain patterns and, 216

maternal glucose metabolism and, 200

trends, 6263, 64f

Cholesterol, 97

Chorionicity, in multiple fetus pregnancies, 88, 89

Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults, 16

Cocaine use, 152

Cognitive functioning

GWG outcomes in childhood, 225226

neurodevelopmental outcomes of SGA infants, 222225

Contraceptive services, 9, 270, 276

Corticosteroid-binding globulin, 93



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